MIA: Encyclopedia of Marxism: Comintern Glossary

Comintern Glossary

Published in To the Masses: Proceedings of the Third Congress of the Communist International, 1921 (https://www.haymarketbooks.org/books/897-to-the-masses), pp. 1203-1250.
Or in Toward the United Front: Proceedings of the Fourth Congress of the Communist International, 1922 (https://www.haymarketbooks.org/books/472-toward-the-united-front), pp. 1211-1255.

Abd al Malik

Grandson of Abd al-Qadir; born in Damascus, went to Morocco 1902; declared war against French rule during World War I with support from Germany; later collaborated with Spanish in Morocco against French.

Abd al-Qadir (1808-83)

Algerian Islamic scholar; from 1832 leader of guerrilla struggle against French invasion of Algeria; forced to surrender 1847 and exiled.

Abdul Hamid II (1842-1918)

Sultan and autocrat of Ottoman Empire 1876-1909; forced from office after ‘Young Turk’ revolution 1908.

Abilov, Ibrahim Manarramoghh (1881-1923)

Member of Azerbaijani Hümmet [Equality] party and RSDLP from 1905; emigrated to Persia 1908; editor of Baki hayati 1912; deputy to Azerbaijani Parliament 1918-20; joined Azerbaijan CP 1920; appointed diplomatic representative of soviet Azerbaijan in Turkey 1921.

Acevedo, Isidoro (1867-1952)

Spanish typesetter, writer; joined Spanish Socialist Workers Party 1886; co-founder of Spanish CP; 4WC delegate; exiled in USSR after Spanish Civil War.


General Federation of Trade Unions of Germany (Allgemeine Deutsche Gewerkschaftsbund); affiliate of Amsterdam International.

Adler, Friedrich (1879-1960)

Physicist; colleague of Einstein in Zurich 1907; active in Austrian SDP; pacifist during War; jailed 1917-18; opposed Comintern; organiser and president of 2ND International 1921-23; secretary of Socialist International 1923-39; in exile during Nazi occupation; settled in Switzerland 1947.

Adler, Friedrich (1879-1960)

Leader of Austrian Social Democracy from early years of century; pacifist during War; jailed 1917-18 for assassination of Austrian prime minister; organiser and president of Two-and-a-Half International 1921-3; secretary of Socialist International 1923-46; in exile during Nazi occupation; settled in Switzerland 1947.


American Federation of Labor; affiliates included most U.S. trade unions.

Alessandri, Cesare (1869-1929)

Worked as journalist for Italian SP from 1894; correspondent for Avanti in Paris from 1912; worked with Serrati on Communismo 1919-22, then with Turati; subsequently favourable to Fascism.

Alexakis, Orion [d. 1920)

Greek Communist from Balaklava; killed by pirates at sea while returning to Greece from Russia October 1920.

Ali Pasha, Mehmed Emin (1815-71)

Ottoman diplomat and statesman; five times grand vizier 1852-71; a leader of Tanzimat administrative reform process.

al-Sharif, Sayyid Ahmad (1875-1933)

Senussi leader of struggle to drive French out of Chad and Italians out of Libya; fought British forces in Egypt during War; left Libya 1918 and took refuge in Turkey and later Arabia.

American Federation of Labor [AFL]

US craft union organisation founded 1881; 3.9 million members in 1921; split 1935-6 with formation of Congress of Industrial Organizations; reunited 1955.

Amiens Charter

Adopted by French CGT in 1906; a programmatic platform for revolutionary syndicalism.

Amsterdam International

Refers to the International Federation of Trade Unions, founded in 1913, and refounded in 1919 by Social Democratic trade union leaders, with headquarters in Amsterdam.


Leaders of the International Federation of Trade Unions.


Doctrine and movement favouring replacement of political and state authority by a self-regulated society of individuals and freely formed groups.

Andrews, William (1870-1950)

Born in England; moved to South Africa 1893; miner and unionist; first chair of Labour Party 1909; left it to form antiwar International Socialist League 1915; first general secretary of South African CP 1921; withdrew from leadership posts in CP 1925; expelled 1932; readmitted 1938; chair of CP during 1940s.

Angell, Norman (1872-1967)

English writer; winner of Nobel Peace Prize 1933.

Anseele, Edward (1856-1938)

A founder and leader of Belgian Workers Party from 1885; aimed to break capitalist economic control through cooperatives; Belgian minister of public works 1918-21, of railways, post and telegraph 1925-7, and of state 1930.

Antel, Sadrettin Celal (Orhan) (1890-1954)

Educator; joined Istanbul Communist Group 1919; editor of their Aydınlık (Clarity) 1921; secretary of Turkish delegation at 4WC; sentenced to seven years of imprisonment 1925; left CP after his release eighteen months later; continued to write for progressive publications.

Appel, Jan [Hempel] (1890-1985)

Joined SPD 1908; active in radical left in Hamburg during War; member KPD 1919, supported its ultraleft wing; founding member of KAPD; Third World Congress delegate; in prison 1923-5; lived in Holland from 1926 as member of Internationalist Communist Group; from 1948 a member of Spartacusbund.

Appleton, William A. (1859-1940)

Secretary of British General Federation of Trade Unions 1907-38; elected president of Amsterdam International July-August 1920; resigned November 1920 because of opposition of British Trades Union Congress.

Aqazadeh, Kamran (1891-193?]

Born in Ardebil province of Iran; joined Bolsheviks 1912; a founding leader of Adalat [Iran Justice] Party; elected secretary of CP Central Committee June 1920; head of Iranian CP delegation to Third World Congress.

Arditi del Popolo (People’s Commandos)

United anti-fascist workers’ defence organisation in Italy; founded June 1921.

Argentina Regional Workers Federation [FORA]

Main union federation split into anarchist and syndicalist wings; anarchist wing initially sympathetic to Comintern and applied for RILU membership, but broke with it by 1922; syndicalist wing included a pro-communist current in which members of CP participated.

Armand, Inessa (1874-1920)

Born in France; teacher; member RSDLP 1904; Bolshevik; in emigration from 1909; delegate to Zimmerwald conference 1915; returned to Russia 1917; head of Bolshevik Women’s Department (Zhenotdel) from 1918; organised international Communist women’s conference 1920; died of cholera.

Arnold, Emil (1897-1974)

Joined Swiss SP Youth 1912; its secretary 1917-21; founding member of CP 1921; Third World Congress delegate; editor-in-chief of Basel Vorwärts 1926-39 and from 1947; broke with CP 1956 on eve of Hungarian Revolution.

Asquith, Herbert (1852-1928)

British prime minister 1908-16; Liberal Party leader until 1926; supported first Labour government 1924.

Auclair, Adrien (1895-1948)

Joined French SP youth 1912; a leader of SP youth tendency favouring affiliation to Comintern 1920; represented CP youth in party leadership 1921; supported Renoult tendency in CP; assigned to propaganda work 1922; rejected decisions of 4WC; expelled January 1923; rejoined SP; as municipal official, favoured acceptance of Vichy rule 1941; briefly arrested after Liberation.

Australian Labor Party

Founded 1891 by trade unionists; won control of Parliament and formed first Labor ministry 1904; member of Second International; chauvinist position during War.

Australian Socialist Party

Formed 1910; declared support for Comintern December 1919; participated in founding CP of Australia [CPA] October 1920, but split off in December over opposition to stance on Labor Party; sent representatives to Third World Congress; following Comintern recognition of CPA in August 1922 most ASP members joined CPA.

Avanti! [Forward]

Central daily organ of Italian SP; began publication 1896.

Azimonte, Carlo (1888-1958)

Factory worker in youth; socialist from 1904; trade-union staffer from 1911; member CGL National Council 1912; supported its reformist wing; mayor of Busto Arsizio 1919-21; CGL delegate to RILU founding congress 1921; forced out of trade-union activity under Fascist rule.

Azzario, Isidoro (1884-1959)

Railway worker; Socialist and union activist; a leader of Italian CP’s trade union work from 1921; elected to Central Committee 1922 and 1926; 4WC delegate; forced in exile from 1926; member RILU Executive 1926; jailed in Panama during Latin American mission 1927 and in Italy 1928-40.

Bacci, Giovanni (1857-1928)

Joined Italian SP 1903; became editor of Avanti 1912; elected to national party leadership 1914; supported Maximalist faction at 1921 Livorno Congress; took part in SP’s parliamentary resistance to Fascism 1924-6.

Badulescu, Alexandru [Ghitza Moscu] (1895-1938)

Leader of commercial employees union; joined Romanian SP before War; Romanian CP delegate to Third World Congress, becoming its representative on ECCI; given high position in Moldavia Autonomous Soviet Republic while living in USSR; arrested and executed during Stalin purges.

Bakunin, Mikhail (1814-76)

Russian anarchist; leader of split with Marxist forces in First International.

Baldesi, Gino (1879-1934)

Self-educated worker; SP journalist; assistant secretary of Italian union federation (CGL) 1918; a leader of reformist wing of Italian SP and trade unions 1920-1; left SP with reformist forces October 1921; vainly sought accommodation between CGL unions and Fascists; withdrew from political activity 1927.

Baldesi, Gino (1879-1934)

Self-educated worker; SP journalist; assistant secretary of Italian union federation (CGL) 1918; a leader of the reformist wing of Italian SP and trade unions; sought accommodation between CGL unions and fascists; when this failed, withdrew from political activity 1927.


See Tywerousky, Oscar.

Balfour, Arthur James (1848-1930)

Conservative Party prime minister of United Kingdom 1902-5; foreign secretary 1916-19.

Balkan Communist Federation

Coordinating body for Communist parties of Balkans; formed 1915 as Balkan Revolutionary Social Democratic Federation, an alliance of Socialist parties opposed to imperialist war; renamed Balkan Communist Federation 1920.

Balkan Communist Federation

Coordinating body for Communist parties of the Balkans; originated in 1915 as an alliance of antiwar Socialist parties.


See Minor, Robert.

Ballod, Karl [Kärlis Balodis] (1864-1931)

Latvian economist and statistician; economics professor in Berlin from 1905 and in Riga from 1919.

Baratono, Adelchi (1875-1947)

Founding member of Italian SP 1892; member of Intransigent wing of PSI that polemicised with reformists; co-opted to national leadership 1919; supported Maximalist faction at Livorno; elected deputy to parliament 1921; joined reformist PSU 1923; rejoined PSI 1925.


French metalworker; member of CP 1921; signed Renoult statement ‘against united front with the [reformist] leaders’ November 1922; 4WC delegate; nominated for CP leadership by 4WC.

Barbusse, Henri (1873-1935)

French novelist; wrote about experiences in French army during War; joined CP 1923.

Barth, Emil (1879-1941)

Joined SPD 1908, USPD 1917; chair of Revolutionary Shop Stewards in Berlin; February to November 1918; member of SPD-USPD government November to December 1918; remained in rump USPD after Halle Congress 1920; chairman of factory councils 1921; rejoined SPD in 1922 fusion.

Bauer, Gustav (1870-1944)

Deputy chairman of General Commission of ADGB union federation 1908-18; supporter of SPD right wing; German chancellor 1919-20; left SPD in disgrace for corruption scandal 1925.

Bauer, Max (1869-1929)

German officer, rightist politician, and arms merchant; a leader of Kapp putsch against German republic 1920; active in German military dealings with Soviet Union in framework of Rapallo treaty 1923-24.

Bauer, Otto (1881-1938)

Leader and theoretician of Austrian Social Democracy; secretary of its parliamentary fraction 1907-14; prisoner of war in Russia 1914-17; Austrian minister of foreign affairs 1918-19; opponent of October Revolution and Comintern; leader of Two-and-a-Half International 1921-3; member of Bureau and Executive of Socialist International from 1923; forced into exile 1934.

Baum, Else

See Tennenboom, Edda.


See Disraeli, Benjamin

Bebel, August (1840-1913)

Turner; a founder of German socialist movement; collaborator of Marx and Engels; central leader of SPD from its foundation until his death; author of Women and Socialism; opposed revisionism in SPD but eventually moved toward centrist positions.

Becker, Karl (1894-1942)

Typographer; member SPD 1912; joined International Communists of Germany (IKD) during War; member German CP January 1919; left CP with ultraleft current September 1919; rejoined March 1920; 4WC delegate; member CC 1923; opposed Stalinist current in German CP and removed from leadership posts 1928; in exile from 1934; arrested in France and delivered to Nazis; executed.

Bedacht, Max [Marshall] (1883-1972)

Born in Germany; barber, journalist; joined Swiss SP 1905; moved to US and joined SP 1908; supported its left wing during War; joined CP 1919; a leader of ‘Liquidator’ wing of CP that favoured functioning openly; Third World Congress delegate; expelled for ‘leftism’ 1948; later reinstated.

Belgian Workers Party

Formed 1885 when SP of Belgium merged with trade unions and cooperatives; chauvinist position during War; 700,000 members 1921, including affiliated unionists and cooperativists.

Bell, Thomas (1882-1944)

Scottish foundry worker; joined ILP 1900; a founder and leader of Socialist Labour Party from 1903; leading figure in wartime shop stewards’ movement; a founder of British CP 1920 and head of its propaganda department to 1925; Third World Congress delegate; remained leading member of CP until his death.

Belloni, Ambrogio (1864-1950)

Lawyer; joined Italian SP 1897; elected to national leadership 1907; founding member of Communist Faction 1919 and of CP 1921; Third World Congress delegate; sentenced to five years imprisonment by Fascist regime 1926.

Beneš, Edvard (1884-1948)

Member Czechoslovak National Socialist party; foreign minister 1918-35; prime minister September 1921 to October 1922; president, 1935-38 and 1945-48.

Bentivoglio, Giorgio

Member of Maximalist wing of Italian SP; maker of its motion at 1921 Livorno Congress defining PSI relations to Comintern.

Berce, Augusts (1890-1921)

Joined Latvian SDP 1905; elected to CC of Latvian CP 1919; soviet Latvia people’s commissar for social welfare; returned to Riga 1920 to work in Communist underground; arrested 1921 and executed.


See Meyer, Fritz.

Bergson, Henri (1859-1941)

French philosopher; developed a ‘process philosophy’ emphasising motion, change, and evolution.

Berkman, Alexander (1870-1936)

Born in Russian Empire; emigrated to US about 1888; anarchist; imprisoned fourteen years for attempted assassination of notorious capitalist; partner of Emma Goldman; jailed for opposition to War and subsequently deported to Russia; first supported, then opposed Bolshevik rule; emigrated 1921; continued anarchist activity in Western Europe.

Bernstein, Eduard (1850-1932)

German socialist; collaborator of Engels; theorist of revisionist current in SPD from 1898; member of USPD during War; opponent of Comintern; rejoined SPD 1919; Reichstag deputy 1902-7, 1912-18, 1920-8.

Béron, Émile (1896-1966)

Metalworker; union leader and SP member in Lorraine after war; founding member of French CP; member 4WC Presidium; expelled 1924; readmitted 1926; elected parliamentary deputy 1928; expelled again 1932; re-elected as independent left candidate 1932 and 1936; supported Popular Front 1936; voted powers to Pétain 1940; in underground under Vichy; withdrew from political activity after Liberation.

Berthelot, Pierre-Eugène-Marcellin (1827-1907)

French chemist and writer; secretary of French Academy of Sciences from 1889.

Besnard, Pierre (1886-1947)

Railway worker; a leader of Paris railway unions 1920; general secretary of syndicalist opposition within CGT 1921; a leader of anarcho-syndicalist current within CGTU 1922 and of small syndicalist federation in 1930s; vice-president of pacifist grouping after Liberation.

Bianchi, Giuseppe (1888-1921)

Born in Italy; printer; became socialist during extended stay in Germany; returned to Italy 1914; edited PSI newspapers; administrator in CGL from end of War; CGL delegate to Moscow 1920; elected to CGL leadership 1921; CGL delegate to RILU founding congress 1921.

Bidegaray, Marcel (1875-1944)

General secretary of French railway union from 1909 and member of CGT confederal executive; member of French SP; went with dissidents in 1921 SP split; supported CGT majority; part of reformist split from SP 1933; died in internment during World War II.

Bigot, Marthe (1878-1962)

Teacher; feminist and union activist; internationalist during War; co-founder of French CP; member of its executive CC 1921-22; supporter of Left current; 4WC delegate; supporter of Left Opposition led by Trotsky; left CP 1926; active in founding French Trotskyist movement and then as revolutionary syndicalist through 1940s.

Billings, Frank

See Huiswoud, Otto.

Birch, Minnie (b. 1900)

British industrial worker, then stenographer; arrested for speaking in Hyde Park 1917; founding member of British CP 1920; technical assistant to CP Committee on Organisation; wrote ‘The Women’s Movement’, a report for CP, 1922; 4WC delegate; delegate to Communist Youth International congress in Moscow 1924; still in CP in 1930s;


See Smith, F.E.

Bismarck, Otto von (1815-98)

German politician and writer; prime minister of Prussia from 1862; collaborated in crushing Paris Commune 1871; first chancellor of German Empire 1871-90; sponsor of anti-Socialist laws 1878-90.

Bissolati, Leonida (1857-1920)

Founding member of Italian SP 1892; editor of Avanti 1896-1903, 1908-10; saw British Labour Party as model; expelled from SP 1912 for supporting Italy’s war in Libya; founded Reformist Socialist Party, which supported Italy’s entry into War; government minister 1916-18.

Black Hundreds

Rightist groups under Russian tsarism, which carried out attacks, with unofficial government approval, on Jewish communities and revolutionaries.

Blacker, L.V. Stewart (1887-1964)

British army officer; served with British forces combating Red Army in Turkestan 1918-20.

Blanc, Jules (1881-1960)

Union activist; member French SP from about 1905; internationalist during War; favoured affiliation to Comintern; founding member of CP; opposed decisions of Fourth Congress; left CP and withdrew from political activity; re-emerged as leftist writer in 1930s.

Bloc des gauches (Left Bloc)

Parliamentary alliance of left republican and reformist socialist forces, formed in 1899. The Bloc dissolved in 1905, but the term remained in use to designate coalitions of that type.

Blum, Léon (1872-1950)

Joined French Socialist Party 1904; led SP after its break with Communists in December 1920; premier of the Popular Front government 1936-37 and 1938; jailed by Vichy government 1940-45.

Bokanowski, Maurice (1879-1928)

French politician; leader of centre-right Action républicaine et sociale; minister 1924 and 1926-28.

Bolen, Vàclav (1887-1963)

Agricultural worker; secretary general of Czechoslovak agricultural and forest workers’ union 1921; member of Czechoslovak CP 1921 and its CC 1921-22; leader of its left-wing opposition 1922; expelled September 1922 but readmitted by 4WC; 4WC consultative delegate; expelled as ‘right opportunist’ 1929; joined National Socialists under Beneš 1930; People’s Socialist deputy 1946-48.


originally the majority current (‘Bolsheviki’) of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party at its 1903 congress; declared itself a separate party, the RSDLP (Bolsheviks), in 1912; took name Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in 1918.

Bombacci, Nicola (1879-1945)

Teacher; union activist from about 1900; elected to CGL national council 1911; member of Italian SP; jailed for stand against War October to November 1918; CP leader after Livorno split 1921; delegate to Second and Fourth World Congresses; expelled from CP for Fascist sympathies 1927; supported Mussolini from 1930s; became Mussolini advisor toward close of World War II; was captured and executed with him by partisans.

Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769-1821)

French revolutionary, general, and emperor.

Bonomi, Ivanoe (1873-1951)

Joined Italian SP 1893; expelled 1912 for support of Libya war; minister of war 1920; prime minister July 1921 to February 1922; retired from politics after Mussolini’s triumph; helped forge bourgeois anti-Fascist coalition 1942; prime minister 1944-5.

Bordiga, Amadeo (1889-1970)

Joined Italian SP 1910; led Communist-Abstentionist faction after War; head of CP from its formation in 1921 to 1926; opposed Comintern’s United Front policy; 4WC delegate; member ECCI 1922-28; jailed with Gramsci 1926-30; defended Trotsky 1928; expelled 1930; led small anti-Stalinist Communist current until death.

Borodin, Mikhail (1884-1951)

Joined RSDLP 1903, became Bolshevik; emigrated to US 1906; member of American SP during War; returned to Russia July 1918, and worked in Commissariat of Foreign Affairs; became Comintern emissary 1919, traveling to US, Mexico, Spain, Germany, and Britain; adviser to Sun Yat-sen and Chiang Kai-shek 1923-7; arrested 1949; died in Siberian labour camp.

Borojević, Svetozar (1856-1920)

Austro-Hungarian field marshal during War.

Böttcher, Paul (1891-1975)

Joined SPD 1908; leader of USPD after 1917; joined CP in 1920 fusion; added to Zentrale to represent radical Left February 1921; lead editor of CP Berlin daily 1921; alternate member ECCI 1922; minister in Saxony SPD-CP coalition government 1923; removed from leadership posts as ‘rightist’ 1924; expelled with Brandler current 1929; fled to Switzerland 1933; worked with pro-Soviet and anti-Nazi resistance during World War II; returned to East Germany 1945; taken to USSR 1946 and jailed for nine years; subsequently rejoined German CP.

Bouchez, Arthur (b. 1891)

French metalworker; active in antiwar wing of his union during War; member of CP from its formation 1920; supporter of Left current in CP 1922; member of party executive 1923-24; briefly head of metalworkers union 1927; quit CP 1928, protesting sanctions against Trotsky and other Left Oppositionists and demanding freedom of discussion.

Boudengha, Tahar (also Boudemgha)

Tunisian postal worker; organised and led union branch from 1920; joined French CP in Tunisia 1921; 4WC delegate; member of commission on Blacks.

Bourderon, Albert (1858-1930)

French syndicalist and SP member; secretary of Coopers’ Federation 1903-29 and prominent figure in CGT; pacifist position during War, opposing CGT majority’s support for Sacred Union with capitalists; attended Zimmerwald Conference 1915; after War he supported CGT majority and its expulsion of left-wing minority.

Bradlaugh, Charles (1833-91)

British radical writer and editor; founded National Secular Society; opponent of slavery; convicted 1877 for advocating birth control; four times excluded from House of Commons for refusing to take a religiously worded oath of office.

Brailsford, Henry Noel (1873-1958)

British left-wing journalist; joined Independent Labour Party 1907; wrote extensively on social struggles in Balkans; advocated negotiated peace during War; defended Soviet Russia in 1920s; spoke out against Stalin’s show trials in 1930s.

Brançon, Maurice (1887-1956)

Employed in Paris gas service; Freemason; unionist from 1911; joined SP 1918; fired for strike activity 1920; supported affiliation to Comintern; elected to CP executive as representative of Centre October 1922; 4WC delegate; voted against 4WC organisational resolution on France; after 4WC resigned from both Masons and CP executive; remained CP member until after World War Two; jailed during Nazi occupation.

Brand, Henryk (1890-1937)

Joined Swiss SDP as Polish student in Zurich during War; returned to Warsaw 1919 and joined Polish CP; elected to its CC 1920; Third World Congress delegate; ECCI member 1923-7; denounced by Comintern as ‘right-winger’ 1927; worked for Gosplan in Moscow 1931-7; arrested 1937 and executed.

Brandler, Heinrich (1881-1967)

Joined SPD 1902; central figure in Chemnitz labour movement from 1914; early member of Spartacus League; co-founder of German CP; convicted and imprisoned for role during March Action; escaped and went to Moscow November 1921; worked for RILU; central leader of CP 1921-3; made scapegoat for defeat of German workers in 1923; expelled as ‘rightist’ 1929; led Communist Party (Opposition) [KPO] 1929-33; in exile 1933-49; active in Arbeiterpolitik [Workers’ Politics], successor group of KPO, from 1949.

Branting, Karl Hjalmar (1860-1925)

Founding member of Swedish SDP 1889; party leader 1907; headed party’s reformist majority; government minister 1917; opponent of October Revolution; chairman of 1919 congress of Socialist International; three times prime minister 1920-5.

Brass, Otto (1875-1950)

Joined SPD 1895; active in trade union and cooperative movements; member USPD CC 1917-20; part of USPD-KPD fusion December 1920 and elected to CC; in Moscow March 1921 for discussions with Lenin and Comintern leaders; in April signed declaration of solidarity with Paul Levi; expelled from KPD January 1922; joined KAG and its fusions with USPD and SPD; arrested by Nazis 1938 and sentenced to twelve years imprisonment; became member of SED in East Germany 1945.

Braunthal, Bertha (1881-1967)

Member of USPD secretariat 1919-20, and secretary for its propaganda work among women; joined VKPD in 1920 fusion, and member of its Women’s Secretariat; supported VKPD majority in March Action dispute; delegate to Third World Congress; moved to London 1933; member of British CP until her death.

Breitscheid, Rudolf (1874-1944)

Initially a Liberal politician, joined German SPD 1912; joined USPD 1917; Prussian minister of the interior 1918-19; after reunification with SPD in 1922 became party’s foreign policy spokesperson; emigrated 1933; captured by Vichy in southern France and delivered to Gestapo; died in Buchenwald concentration camp.

Brest-Litovsk, Peace of

Treaty between Soviet Russia, Germany, Turkey, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria, signed 3 March 1918 and effectively annulled by the surrender of Germany and its allies later that year.

Briand, Aristide (1862-1932)

French politician; member of SP until he accepted a ministerial post 1906; held office frequently as premier, including 1921-22.

Briand, Aristide (1862-1932)

French politician; member of SP until he accepted ministerial post 1906; premier of France eleven times, including 1921-2.

Bright, John (1811-89)

British radical politician; campaigner for free trade and extension of the right to vote; vocal opponent of slavery; three times cabinet member 1868-82.

British Labour Party

Formed 1906 by trade union federation and Independent Labour Party; member of Second International; voted to oppose affiliation of CP 1920; 4.5 million members in 1921.

Brizon, Pierre (1878-1923)

Teacher; member French SP from about 1900; parliamentary deputy 1910-19; opponent of colonialism and militarism; internationalist during War; joined CP 1920; spokesperson for its right wing and public critic of Comintern; expelled 19 October 1922; subsequently worked with Frossard and other former CP members in Socialist-Communist Union.

Brouckère, Louis de (1870-1951)

Joined Belgian Workers Party early 1890s; criticised leadership’s reformist stance before 1914; adopted social chauvinist stance during War and joined government; member government council 1919-21; leader of party until his death.

Buchez, Philippe (1796-1865)

Born in Belgium; joined socialist movement inspired by Saint-Simon 1825; sought social progress through unity of working people in cooperatives; fought in French revolution and chair of Constituent Assembly 1848; withdrew from radical activity under Napoleon III.

Bukharin, Nikolai (1888-1938)

Joined Russian Bolsheviks 1906; in exile 1911-17; member Bolshevik CC 1917-30; one of central Bolshevik leaders within Comintern 1919-28; aligned with defenders of German March Action at 3WC 1921; 4WC delegate; chairman of Comintern 1926-29; opposed Stalinist forced collectivisation and led Right Opposition in Soviet CP 1928; deprived of leadership posts 1929; executed after Stalin frame-up trial 1938.

Bulak-Balakhovich, Stanislaw (1883-1940)

Polish-Belorussian officer; fought first with Reds, and then with Whites and Polish government in Russian civil war; led unsuccessful rising in Belarus 1920; active in anti-Nazi resistance 1939-40; killed by Nazis.

Bulgakov, Sergei (1871-1944)

Leader of Legal Marxists, who used Marxist concepts to support development of capitalism in Russia 1897-1901; later an Orthodox church theologian; based in Paris from 1923.

Bullitt, William (1891-1967)

U.S. diplomat; delegate to Paris Peace Conference 1918; sent by Wilson to parley with Bolshevik government Moscow 1919; recommended recognition, which Wilson rejected; film script editor during 1920s; first U.S. ambassador to USSR 1933-36; ambassador to France 1936-40; fought with Free French under De Gaulle 1944-45.


General Union of Jewish Workers in Lithuania, Poland, and Russia; founded in tsarist Russia 1897; affiliated to RSDLP 1898-1903 and from 1906, siding with Mensheviks; opposed October Revolution; left-wing split 1919 and became Communist Bund, with most joining Russian CP 1920; social democratic wing functioned as separate organisation outside Soviet Union.

Bunting, Sidney (1873-1936)

Born in England; moved to South Africa 1900; lawyer; joined Labour Party 1910; joined antiwar International Socialist League 1915; advocated organising Black workers; co-founder of CP 1921; 4WC delegate; fell into disfavour over opposition to ‘native republic’ policy 1928; expelled 1931.

Buozzi, Bruno (1881-1944)

Joined Italian SP 1905; general secretary of metalworkers union from 1909; member of CGL directing council 1912 and executive commission 1918-21; joined reformist PSU 1922; secretary of CGL from 1925; member of anti-Fascist resistance during World War II; murdered by Nazi SS.

Burger, Vàclav (1859-1923)

Right-wing politician in Czechoslovakia; minister of railways 1920-21.

Burian, Edmund (1878-1935)

Joined Czechoslovak SDP 1897; editor of social democratic journals; Third World Congress delegate; member of CP executive committee 1921-9; expelled from CP 1929 for ‘right-wing opportunism’ and rejoined SDP.

Burtsev, Vladimir Lyovich (1862-1942)

Active in revolutionary student movement from early 1880s; arrested and exiled to Siberia 1885; escaped 1888 and went into exile; close to SRs during 1905 revolution; left Soviet Russia 1918 and became leader of White counterrevolutionaries in exile.

Cabrini, Angiolo (1869-1937)

Joined Italian socialist movement about 1886; active in union confederation and cooperative movement; expelled from SP 1912 for supporting Italy’s war against Libya; a founder of Reformist Socialist Party [PSRI] and supporter of Italy’s entry into War; International Labour Office correspondent in Rome from 1919 until his death; collaborated with Fascist regime on labour issues.

Cachin, Marcel (1869-1958)

Joined Guesde’s French Workers Party 1892; member French SP 1905; social-patriot during war; with Frossard, leader of Centre current in SP and, from 1920, in CP; director of l’Humanité 1918-58; 4WC delegate; supporter of Stalin wing of Comintern; active in resistance to Nazi occupation; prominent CP leader until his death.

Cadets [Constitutional Democratic Party, Russia]

Bourgeois liberal party in tsarist Russia founded 1905; advocated constitutional monarchy; opposed October Revolution and supported Whites in civil war.

Caillaux, Joseph (1863-1944)

French politician and government leader; jailed for seeking a negotiated end to the War 1917-20; re-entered government 1925.

Caldara, Emilio (1867-1942)

A founder of Italian SP 1892; first socialist mayor of Milan 1914-20; favoured Italy’s intervention in War; joined reformist PSU 1922; attempted a reconciliation with Mussolini 1934.

Calwer, Richard (1868-1927)

German economist; joined SPD 1891; member of reformist wing of party; expelled 1909; worked in ADGB trade union federation.

Canellas, Antonio (1898-1936)

Typographer; syndicalist; leader of textile workers’ strike in Rio de Janeiro 1919; co-founder of Brazilian Communist Party 1919; member CC of Brazilian CP 1922; 4WC delegate; left CP 1923.


Agreements granting foreign governments legal jurisdiction over their nationals travelling in the Ottoman Empire and some other Eastern states.

Carr, John

See Katterfeld, Ludwig.


Central Committee.


Socialists who waver between revolutionary and reformist positions, unwilling to embrace a revolutionary course.

Cerny [Černý], Jan (1874-1959)

Premier of Czechoslovakia September 1920 to September 1921, and in 1926.

Cerven [Červen] [Red]

Weekly Communist periodical published in Prague 1918-21.

Ceton, Jan Cornelis (1875-1943)

Teacher; joined Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party [SDAP] late 1890s; secretary of Social Democratic Teachers Association 1901-5, 1907-8; founding member of left-wing SDP 1909; became party secretary-treasurer and editor of De Tribune 1910; founding member of Dutch CP; Third World Congress delegate; expelled from CP 1926 with Rotterdam branch, which formed separate CP; two parties reunited in 1930, but Ceton withdrew from politics soon afterward.


General Confederation of Labour (Confederazione generale del lavoro); formed in Italy 1906; allied with Socialist Party until late 1922; suppressed under fascism. See General Confederation of Labour, Italy.


General Confederation of Labour (Confédération générale du travail); founded in France 1895; initially syndicalist in orientation; leadership followed reformist course from 1914; revolutionary wing driven out in 1921. See General Confederation of Labour, France.


Unitary General Confederation of Labour (Confédération générale du travail unitaire); founded in France 1922 by revolutionary unionists driven out of CGT; affiliated to RILU 1923.

Chabert, Charles (1818-90)

Engraver; active in revolutionary movement under Napoleon III; participant in Paris Commune 1871; helped build cooperative movement in 1870s; joined predecessor of French SP 1879; socialist municipal councillor from 1884.

Chambelland, Maurice (1901-66)

office employee; syndicalist and internationalist during War; member of French CP from its formation 1921; editorial secretary of Monatte’s La Vie ouvrière January 1922; dismissed for public criticism of CP Centre current October 1922; expelled from CP for protesting ‘Bolshevisation’ 1924; co-founder of the ‘syndicalist communist’ Révolution prolétarienne 1925; continued revolutionary syndicalist activity into 1960s.

Chamberlain, Austen (1863-1937)

British Conservative politician; frequent Cabinet member 1902-31; party leader 1921-22.

Chanak (Çanakkale)

Town and military fortress on Asian side of Turkish straits, garrisoned by British army after War until October 1920.

Charbit, Ferdinand (1892-1985)

Born in Algeria; typographer; union activist in France from 1910; edited antiwar newspaper in Lyons during War; collaborator of Monatte’s La Vie Ouvrière 1920; resigned from CP’s l’Humanité to become managing director of ‘syndicalist communist’ La Révolution prolétarienne 1925, a role he filled for a half century; took part briefly in Left Opposition led by Trotsky late 1920s; active as revolutionary syndicalist into 1970s.

Chavenon, Léon (b. 1872)

French journalist and economist; founded financial magazine L’Information 1899; longtime editor in chief.

Chen Duxiu (1879-1942)

Took part in Chinese revolution 1911; leader of revolutionary nationalist May Fourth movement 1919; co-founder of Chinese CP and its first general secretary 1921; 4WC delegate; deposed 1927; won to Trotsky’s views; expelled 1929; leader of Chinese pro-Trotsky Left Opposition 1929-41; jailed 1932-37.

Chesterton, G.K. (1874-1936)

British writer, conservative-minded social critic, and exponent of Christian theology.

Chicherin, Georgy (1872-1936)

Joined RSDLP 1904; lived in exile 1905-17; Menshevik before 1914; internationalist during World War I; joined Bolsheviks on return to Russia 1918; Soviet foreign affairs commissar 1918-30; negotiated Rapallo treaty with Germany 1922.

Chicherin, Georgy Vasilievich (1872-1936)

Joined RSDLP 1904; lived in exile 1905-17; Menshevik before 1914; internationalist during War; joined Bolsheviks on return to Russia 1918; Soviet foreign affairs commissar 1918-30.

Chkheidze, Nikolai Semyonovich (1864-1926)

Joined Social Democratic movement in Georgia 1892; spokesperson for Mensheviks in tsarist duma 1907-17; chairman of Petrograd Soviet after February Revolution; opponent of October Revolution; chairman of Menshevik government in Georgia until its Soviet ouster 1918-21; fled to France.

Christen, E.

Mechanic; supporter of Left current in French CP; activist in metalworkers union in Paris 1922; elected to party executive January 1923.

Churchill, Winston (1874-1965)

British politician, writer; prime minister 1940-45 and 1951-55; organiser of British intervention against Soviet government 1919-20; colonial secretary 1921-22; favoured armed resistance to Turkish independence struggle 1922; lost seat in November 1922 parliamentary elections.

Ciccotti, Ettore (1863-1939)

Founding member of Italian SP 1892; history professor and translator of Marx and Engels into Italian; supporter of SP reformist wing; as deputy in parliament supported Italian entry in War; later broke with workers’ movement, expressed sympathy with Fascism, then moved toward liberalism.

Clarke, John S. (1885-1959)

Circus trainer; socialist from about 1900; internationalist during War; editor of Scottish Worker 1918-22; represented Scottish Workers’ Committee at Comintern congress 1920; 4WC delegate; active in Independent Labour Party during 1920s; Labour Party councillor in Glasgow 1926-29 and 1941-51.

Clause 9

Clause in Comintern statutes defining powers of the ECCI and specifying its authority to ‘demand of its member parties the expulsion of groups or individuals that breach international discipline’.

Clausewitz, Karl von (1780-1831)

Prussian general and military theorist; author of On War.

Clavel, Louis (1895-1975)

French unionist, teacher; active after War in CGT in Melun (Seine-et-Marne); founding member of CGTU and executive 1922; active in CP and unions through 1930s; took part in resistance to Nazi occupation; antiwar activist in 1950s.

Clemenceau, Georges (1841-1929)

French politician; premier 1906-9 and 1917-20; helped shape Versailles Treaty.

Clynes, John Robert (1868-1949)

Textile worker; union organiser from 1886; member British Labour Party from its inception; member of parliament 1906-31, 1935-45; social chauvinist and minister during War; led Labour party in 1922 elections; opposed British general strike 1926; as Home Secretary, 1929-31, refused visa to Trotsky; retired 1945.


See National Confederation of Labour, Spain.

Cobden, Richard (1804-65)

British radical politician; led struggle against Corn Laws 1839-46; opposed slavery and backed union forces in U.S. civil war 1861-65.

Colijn, Hendrikus (1869-1944)

As Dutch army officer, took part in murderous conquest of Aceh in Dutch East Indies 1898-1904; after return to Netherlands in 1909, parliamentary deputy for Anti-Revolutionary Party 1908; minister of war 1911-13; managing director of Royal Dutch Shell and its predecessor 1914-22; five times prime minister 1925-26 and 1933-39; interned by Nazis 1941.

Colliard, Lucie (1877-1961)

French schoolteacher and militant unionist; joined SP 1912; pacifist and internationalist during War; supported Comintern affiliation at Tours Congress 1920; became member of CP directing committee January 1921; Third World Congress delegate; elected to international secretariat of Communist Women’s Movement 1921; collaborator of Trotskyist Contre le courant 1927-9; expelled from CP 1929; rejoined SP 1936.

Colombino, Emilio (1884-1933)

Metalworker; joined Italian SP before 1905; secretary of Turin metalworkers 1908; favoured union participation in industrial production committees during war; part of Italian union delegation to Soviet Russia 1920; criticised Soviet government on his return; favoured collaboration with Fascist unions 1927.

Colomer, André (1886-1931)

Anarchist with strongly individualist views from early age; anti-militarist in France during War; secretary of Paris theatrical union 1919; co-founder of CGTU 1922; broke with anarchism and joined CP 1927; died in Moscow.

Colrat de Montrozier, Maurice (1871-1954)

French bourgeois politician and journalist; founded League of the Middle Classes 1909; parliamentary deputy 1919-28; minister in Briand and Poincaré cabinets 1921-24.


Communist International.

Communist International / Kommunistische International

Journal published by ECCI in English, French, German, and Russian; founded May 1, 1919.

Communist Party, Argentina

Formed by left-wing socialists as Internationalist Socialist Party in January 1918; voted to affiliate to Comintern April 1919; changed name to CP December 1920.

Communist Party, Armenia

originated in Russian social democratic movement; CP founded 1920; headed Armenian soviet republic from December 1920; 3,000 members 1920.

Communist Party, Australia

Formed October 1920 with 1,000 members; former Australian SP members split off over attitude toward Labor Party December 1920; both ASP and CPA were represented at Third World Congress; following Comintern recognition of CPA in August 1922, most ASP members joined CPA.

Communist Party, Austria

Founded November 1918; fused with left-wing SDP split-off (Socialist Labour Party) January 1921; 14,000 members 1921.

Communist Party, Azerbaijan

originated in Bolshevik wing of RSDLP; CP founded February 1920 with 4,000 members; led soviet regime in Baku November 1917 to July 1918; went underground when soviet regime fell; soviet power re-established April 1920.

Communist Party, Belgium

original nucleus formed October to November 1920; joined by left-wing split off from Belgian Workers Party at September 1921 unification congress; 1,000 members late 1921.

Communist Party, Britain

Formed from unity conventions in July 1920 (merging British Socialist Party, 22 Communist Unity Groups, South Wales Socialist Society, and other organisations), and January 1921 (Workers’ Socialist Federation, Communist Labour Party, ILP members, and others); claimed 1921 membership of 10,000.

Communist Party, Bukhara

Founded November 1918; leading party in Bukhara soviet republic established October 1920; merged with Russian CP February 1922; led in formation of Tadzhik soviet republic 1924.

Communist Party, Bulgaria

name adopted by Tesniaki [See Tesniaki] May 1919; 40,000 members in April 1921, with three-quarters in countryside.

Communist Party, Canada

[Communist group] communist groups in Toronto and other cities formed 1919; initially functioned as branches of US CP; CP of Canada founded May 1921; 4,800 members in 1922.

Communist Party, China

Founded 1 July 1921 at congress bringing together communist groups in Shanghai and other cities; 195 members in 1922.

Communist Party, Cuba

[Communist group] Socialist Group of Havana formed 1905; split over Russian Revolution in 1917; left wing went on to form Communist Group of Havana; communist groups formed in other cities; CP founded 1925.

Communist Party, Czechoslovakia

originated as Marxist Left of SDP, which won party leadership September 1920; founded CP May 1921; claimed 350,000 members 1921; CP in German Czechoslovakia and other national groups joined united party October to November 1921.

Communist Party, Denmark

Formed November 1919 as Socialist Labour Party; changed name to CP November 1920; membership of 2,500 in mid-1921.

Communist Party, East Galicia

[Communist Party of Galicia and Bukovina] originated out of International Revolutionary Social Democracy; CP formed February 1919; headed Galician soviet republic July to August 1920; affiliated to Ukrainian and then Polish CPs late 1920; 1,500 members 1923; became CP of West Ukraine 1923.

Communist Party, East Indies [Communist Party of the Indies]

Born from Indian Social Democratic Union, formed 1914; became CP May 1920; 200 members 1921; 13,000 members December 1922.

Communist Party, Estonia

Formed November 1920; originated as Estonian section of Bolshevik Party, which led Estonian soviet government November 1917 to February 1918 and November 1918 to January 1919; forced underground after its overthrow; 700 members November 1920, 700 members November 1920; 2,800 members 1922.

Communist Party, Finland

originated in left wing of Finnish SDP; led revolutionary forces in civil war January to May 1918; CP founded August 1918; illegal in Finland 1918-44; 25,000 members 1922; Communists in country functioned within legal Socialist Workers Party founded May 1920.

Communist Party, France [French Communist Party]

Formed by French SP majority at Tours Congress December 1920; 120,000 members in March 1921.

Communist Party, Georgia

originated in Russian social democratic movement 1890s; founded as component of Russian CP May 1920; 9,000 members early 1921; became leading party following formation of soviet republic February 1921.

Communist Party, Germany [KPD, VKPD]

Founded December 1918 by Spartacus League and other Communists; fused with USPD majority December 1920 and became briefly known as United CP [VKPD] claiming 350,000 members; 157,000 dues-paying members summer 1921.

Communist Party, Greece

Founded November 1918 as Socialist Workers Party of Greece; voted to affiliate to Comintern 1920, leading to split of minority; 1,300 members in 1920; renamed CP 1924.

Communist Party, Hungary

Founded November 1918 by left social democrats and former war prisoners in Soviet Russia; fused with SDP to form Socialist Party March 1919 and lead Hungarian soviet republic; disintegrated after August 1919 downfall of government; functioned in exile until 1925.

Communist Party, Iceland

Pro-communist faction inside SDP during 1921; 450 members 1922; CP organised 1930.

Communist Party, India

Founded in exile October 1920 with groups in several countries; groups were functioning in India by 1922; CP established inside India 1925.

Communist Party, Iran

Formed June 1920 by Enzeli Congress of Adalat [Justice] Party; a leading party in soviet Republic of Gilan 1920-1; 4,500 members in 1921.

Communist Party, Ireland

[Communist group] formed 1920 as underground organisation during Irish war of independence; CP founded late October 1921 by SP of Ireland, with claimed membership of 120; dissolved 1924; refounded 1933.

Communist Party, Italy

[PCI]formed January 1921 following split from Italian SP at Livorno Congress; 58,000 members at time of split; 43,000 by end of 1921.

Communist Party, Japan

originated among Japanese cadres in US CP in early 1920 who returned to Japan; inspired founding of Socialist League in Tokyo December 1920 with 1,400 members; CP founded July 1922.

Communist Party, Khiva/Khorezm

Formed April 1920; led Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic 1920-4; affiliated to CP of Russia in early 1922; dissolved 1924 when boundaries in Soviet Central Asia were redrawn.

Communist Party, Korea

organised among Korean exiles in Siberia 1918-19; divided into rival groups in Irkutsk and Shanghai; first Communist groups established inside Korea 1921; first Korean CP organised in Seoul 1925.

Communist Party, Latvia

originated in Latvian Social Democratic Workers Party, founded 1904; affiliated to RSDLP; changed name to CP March 1919; led Latvian soviet republic in 1918-20 civil war; forced underground after its defeat; 1,500 members 1922.

Communist Party, Lithuania

Established October 1918 as part of Russian CP; led Lithuanian soviet republic December 1918 to April 1919; following its defeat party functioned underground until 1940.

Communist Party, Luxembourg

Formed January 1921 by left-wing split from Luxembourg SDP; 500 members in 1921.

Communist Party, Mexico

[Mexican Communist Party] Mexican SP changed name to CP November 1919 and voted to join Comintern; 1,500 members late 1922.

Communist Party, Netherlands

originated 1909 as SDP, formed by expelled members of Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party [SDAP]; changed name to CP November 1918; joined Comintern April 1919; 2,000 members late 1921.

Communist Party, Palestine

Emerged out of Poale Zion left, with one wing forming Socialist Workers Party [MPS] 1919; 300 members in 1920; after party outlawed in 1921, its members formed clandestine CP; divided into pro- and anti-Zionist wings 1922; merged into Palestinian CP 1923.

Communist Party, Poland

[Communist Workers Party] formed December 1918 through fusion of SDKPiL and Polish Socialist Party-Left; 6,000 members July 1919; functioned in illegality.

Communist Party, Portugal

[Communist group] originated out of anarcho-syndicalist movement; decided to join Comintern October 1920; CP founded March 1921 with 1,000 members.

Communist Party, Romania

Formed May 1921 when majority of Romanian SP voted to affiliate to Comintern; 2,000 members 1921; minority split off and formed separate social democratic party.

Communist Party, Russia

[Communist Party of Russia (Bolsheviks)] name adopted March 1918 by Bolshevik Party, which originated 1903 as faction in RSDLP; led October Revolution; ruling party in Soviet republic from 1917; 730,000 members in 1921.

Communist Party, South Africa

Formed July 1921 by International Socialist League; 200 members in 1922.

Communist Party, Spain

[Communist Workers Party, PCO] formed April 1921 from split in Spanish SP [PSOE]; 4,000-5,000 members in 1921; fused with Communist Party of Spain [PCE] November 1921 to form united CP.

Communist Party, Sweden

name adopted at 1921 congress of Left Social Democratic Party of Sweden, formed 1917 by expelled left wing from SDP; affiliated to Comintern June 1919; 14,000 members in 1921; majority split from party 1929.

Communist Party, Switzerland

Founded 5-6 March 1921, uniting members of SDP left who had split from party in December 1920 and Communist groups functioning since October 1918; about 6,000 members March 1921.

Communist Party, Turkestan

Formed June 1918; became regional unit of Russian CP March 1920; 20,000 members in early 1921; dissolved 1924 as boundaries of USSR were redrawn.

Communist Party, Turkey

Founded in Baku September 1920, grouping together working-class cadres, left-wing sectors of national movement, and former Turkish POWs won to communism in Soviet Russia; party banned and repressed by Turkish government, with its leadership killed in January 1921.

Communist Party, Ukraine

[Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine] established December 1917 as autonomous component of Russian CP, holding first congress July 1918; 75,000 members 1920.

Communist Party, US

[United Communist Party] Communist movement formed September 1919 as Communist Party of America and Communist Labor Party; CLP and minority of CPA of America fused May 1920 to create United CP; CPA majority fused with United CP May 1921; 10,000 dues-paying members July 1921.

Communist Party, Yugoslavia

name adopted June 1920 by Socialist Workers Party of Yugoslavia, formed 1919 from several Balkan socialist parties; 80,000 members early 1921.

Communist Women’s Movement

Established by ECCI April 1920, headed by International Communist Women’s Secretariat with Clara Zetkin as secretary; published Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale 1921-5 and coordinated work of women’s committees and bureaus in each CP; secretariat dissolved 1926.

Communist Workers Federation of Argentina

See Argentina Regional Workers Federation.

Communist Workers Party of Bulgaria

Ultraleft organisation formed January 1921, looking to German KAPD; sent delegates to Third World Congress, were not seated.

Communist Workers Party of Germany

[KAPD] formed April 1920 by left-wing current expelled from CP with over 40,000 members; official sympathising member of Comintern 1920-1; 8,000 members by early 1921.

Communist Working Group [KAG]

Formed by Paul Levi and other expelled members of KPD; held founding conference November 1921; most adherents fused into USPD in early 1922.

Communist Youth International

Grew out of Socialist Youth International, reconstituted under left-wing leadership 1915; worked with Zimmerwald Left during War; CYI formed November 1919 with seat in Berlin; affiliated to Comintern; moved to Moscow 1921; fifty member organisations and 800,000 members in 1921.

Communist Youth, France

[Federation of Communist Youth] formed 1920 out of split in Socialist Youth; known for antimilitarist work; 4,000 members in May 1923.

Communist Youth, Italy

[Italian Communist Youth Federation] formed January 1921 when majority of Socialist Youth went with CP after Livorno SP split; 40,000 members at founding.

Communist Youth, Russia

[Communist Youth League, Komsomol] founded October 1918; 482,000 members October 1920.

Confederation of Labour

[Spain]. See National Confederation of Labour [CNT].

Conference of the Three Internationals

Meeting of executive committee representatives from the Second and Third Internationals and the Vienna Union (Two-and-a-Half International), held in Berlin, 2-5 April 1922.

Connolly, James (1870-1916)

Born in Scotland of Irish parentage; moved to Ireland 1896; leader of Socialist Republican party; in U.S. 1902-10, was active in U.S. IWW and Socialist Labour Party; worked again in Irish socialist and labour movements from 1910; co-founder Irish Citizen Army 1913; internationalist during War; leader of Easter Uprising 1916; executed by British authorities.

Connolly, Roderic (1901-80)

Irish revolutionist; took part in Easter Uprising led by his father, James Connolly, 1916; first chairman of Irish CP 1921; fought on Republican side in Irish Civil War 1922; 4WC delegate; after Irish Communist organisation was dissolved 1927, joined Irish Labour Party; chair of Labour Party 1971-78.

Cordier, Marcel (b. 1895)

French hairdresser, unionist; initially sympathetic to anarchism; supporter of revolutionary wing of CGT after War; member French CP from 1921; supporter of its Left current; member of CP executive 1923-25; leader of French wing of International Red Aid 1925-35; arrested in Moscow during Stalin purges and expelled from French CP 1938; released and repatriated to France 1939; opponent of Comintern policy toward War 1940.

Cosgrove, Pascal [Crosby]

A leader of US SP left wing; elected member of CP of America Central Executive Committee 1920; organiser for shoe workers union in Massachusetts; delegate in 1921 to Third World Congress and RILU First Congress; sent to China on Comintern mission 1929; a vice-president of National Council for Protection of Foreign Born Workers in 1940s.

Cox, Percy (1864-1937)

British officer and colonial administrator; held many posts in Middle East; high commissioner to Iraq 1920-23.


Communist Party.


Communist Party of Czechoslovakia.

Crispien, Artur (1875-1946)

German socialist journalist; joined SPD 1894; member Spartacus current 1915; leader of USPD 1917-22; attended Second World Congress 1920 but opposed affiliation to Comintern and remained in rump USPD after split; returned to SPD in 1922 fusion; SPD co-chairman until 1933; in Swiss exile from 1933.

Cristescu, Gheorghe (1882-1973)

Joined Romanian socialist movement 1898; leader of SDP (later SP) at its formation 1910; supported SP affiliation to Comintern 1921; CP general secretary 1922-4; elected to ECCI 1924; expelled 1926; in 1928 joined Socialist Workers Party, which eventually merged with SP; imprisoned under Romanian Stalinist regime 1950-4.

Critica Sociale [Social Criticism]

Bimonthly journal of Italian SP right wing; published in Milan 1891-1926; edited by Turati.

Crosby, John

See Cosgrove, Pascal.

Cuno, Wilhelm (1876-1933)

German shipping magnate; chancellor of Germany 22 November 1922-12 August 1923; headed so-called ‘economic government’, the first postwar regime without SPD participation; counselled ‘passive resistance’ to French takeover of Ruhr district 1923.

Cunow, Heinrich (1862-1936)

Bookkeeper; joined SPD c. 1890; an editor of SPD’s Die Neue Zeit 1898; social chauvinist during War; replaced Kautsky as director of Neue Zeit 1917; opponent of Russian October revolution; professor at Berlin University 1919; persecuted by Nazis from 1933.

Cunow, Heinrich (1862-1936)

Joined SPD early 1890s; became an editor of Die Neue Zeit 1898; social chauvinist during War; replaced Kautsky as main editor of Die Neue Zeit 1917-23; opponent of October Revolution; professor at Berlin University 1919; persecuted by Nazis from 1933.

Curzon, George Nathaniel (1859-1925)

British politician; viceroy of India 1898-1905; foreign secretary 1919-24.

Cvijić, Jovan (1865-1927)

Serbian geographer and educator; professor at University of Belgrade from 1893; wrote widely on geography of Balkans.


Communist Women’s Movement.


See Communist Youth International.

Czernin, Ottokar, Count (1872-1932)

Czech aristocrat; conservative politician and diplomat; Austro-Hungarian foreign minister 1916-18; represented Austria at Brest-Litovsk negotiations 1918; member Austrian national assembly 1920-23.

D’Annunzio, Gabriele (1863-1938)

Italian writer and extreme nationalist; organised rightist seizure of Fiume (Rijeka) to block its annexation to Yugoslavia 1919; ruled Fiume 1919-20; later rallied to Italian Fascism.

D’Aragona, Ludovico (1876-1961)

Joined Italian SP 1892; a founder of metalworkers union; general secretary of CGL union federation 1918-25; SP parliamentary deputy 1919-24; headed trade union delegation to Soviet Russia and was consultative delegate to Second World Congress 1920; opposed founding CP 1921 and remained in SP; joined reformist PSU 1922; government minister 1946-51.

Dahlmann, Friedrich (1785-1860)

German liberal historian; author of The History of the English Revolution.

Daily Herald

Daily newspaper of Labour Party published in London 1912-64.

Damon, David

See Ruthenberg, Charles.

Dan, Fyodor (1871-1947)

Member RSDLP 1903; a leader of Mensheviks; supported Provisional Government and continuation of War 1917; opposed October Revolution; in exile from 1921; died in U.S.

Dange, Shripat Amrit (1899-1991)

Supporter of Indian independence movement from about 1920; published pamphlet comparing strategy of Lenin favourably with that of Gandhi 1921; recruited by M.N. Roy to communist movement 1922; jailed 1924-27; leader of Indian CP from its formation in India 1925; led pro-Moscow forces in split in CP 1964; steered CP toward alliance with Congress party 1970s.

Danton, Georges (1759-94)

A leader of French revolution; promoted overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of first French republic.

Danton, Georges Jacques (1759-94)

A leader of French Revolution, promoting overthrow of monarchy and establishment of first French republic; executed following break with Jacobin leaders.

Dashnak Party [Dashnaktsutyun]

Armenian nationalist party founded 1890; fought oppression by both tsarist Russia and Ottoman Empire; affiliated to Second International; opposed October Revolution and headed Armenian anti-Soviet government 1918-20.

Daszyński, Ignacy (1866-1936)

A founding leader of Polish Socialist Party in Galicia 1892; right-wing social democrat; briefly served as head of first Polish government 1918; joined Government of National Defence during war with Soviet Russia 1920.

Daudet, Léon (1868-1942)

French author; extreme nationalist and anti-Semite.

Daugherty, Harry M. (1860-1941)

Lawyer, politician; campaign manager for Warren Harding in 1920 presidential election; named by Harding as attorney general 1920; obtained sweeping injunction against railroad workers 1922; forced to resign over charges of corruption 1924.

Däumig, Ernst (1866-1922)

Joined German SPD 1898; an editor of Vorwärts 1911-16; founding member USPD 1917; worked with Revolutionary Shop Stewards in Berlin 1918; as USPD co-chairman supported affiliation to Comintern; co-chairman of united CP 1920-1; left CP September 1921 and joined Levi’s KAG, participating in its fusions with USPD and then SPD.

David, Raymond

Delegate of French Communist Youth in CP executive from October 1922-23; supporter of Left current; 4WC delegate; jailed for anti-militarist activity during French occupation of Ruhr 1923.

De Leon, Daniel (1852-1914)

Central leader of US Socialist Labor Party; participated in founding of IWW 1905; led split from it 1908.

De Tribune [The Tribune]

Daily organ of Dutch CP; began publication as paper of social-democratic left 1907.

Delagrange, Marcel Émile (1883-1964)

Member of French SP and Committee for the Third International; secretary of railway union and participant in 1920 strikes; in CP after Tours Congress; Third World Congress delegate; joined Faisceau nationalist organisation 1925, calling for reconciliation of nationalism and socialism; expelled from CP 1926.

Delbrück, Hans (1848-1929)

German military historian, who stressed links between warfare, economics, and politics; professor at Berlin university 1885; spokesperson for conservative forces favouring Weimar republic.

Delfosse, Henri (1899-1974)

Miner; union and socialist activist in Denain (Nord) after War; acting secretary of CGTU miners’ union 1922; member of French CP; dissident in CGTU, calling for subordination of CP to trade unions 1923-24; expelled from CP as supporter of Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1927.

Delory, Gustave (1857-1925)

Worker in diverse trades in France; co-founder of textile workers’ union 1879; active in predecessor of French SP in Lille from 1879; founded socialist newspaper in Lille 1886; contributed to popularising the ‘Internationale’ as world socialist anthem; mayor of Lille 1896-1904, 1909-25; interned by German army during War; stayed with SP after formation of CP 1921.

Delplanque, Constant (1859-1935)

Miner; member French SP from 1905; mayor of Sallaumines (Pas-de-Calais) 1912-25; joined CP 1921; supporter of Renoult current; 4WC delegate.

Denikin, Anton (1872-1947)

Russian general; led anti-Soviet forces in southern Russia 1918-20; emigrated to France 1920.

Denikin, Anton Ivanovich (1872-1947)

Russian tsarist general; a leader of White Army during civil war; emigrated 1920.

Depoorter, Vital (b. 1890)

French weaver, unionist; a leader of CGT, then CGTU in Tourcoing (Nord), France; supporter of Left current in French CP; proposed at 4WC for CP executive but not confirmed by national council January 1923; signed letter to Comintern protesting authoritarian regime in CP 1925.

Der Junge Genosse

[The Young Comrade] children’s paper published twice monthly in Berlin by executive committee of Communist Youth International; founded 1 January 1921.

Der Proletarier

[The Proletarian] theoretical monthly of KAPD 1920-7; published in Berlin.

Der Sozialist

[The Socialist] weekly newspaper published in Berlin 1915-22, edited by Breitscheid; after 1917 reflected views of USPD.

Der Syndikalist

[The Syndicalist] weekly paper of German syndicalists published in Berlin; began publication 14 December 1918.


Russian unit of measure; roughly 1.1 hectare or 2.7 acres.

Diaz, Armando (1861-1928)

Italian general; head of army general staff 1917; ennobled as ‘Duke of Victory’ 1921; minister of war under Mussolini 1922-24.

Die Gleichheit [Equality]

Bimonthly magazine of proletarian women’s movement in Germany 1890-1925; edited by Clara Zetkin 1892-1917.

Die Internationale

Bimonthly theoretical journal of KPD; founded 1915 as underground organ of Spartacus current; 5,000 circulation in 1921.

Die Kommunistische Fraueninternationale

[Communist Women’s International] monthly journal published in Germany by Communist Women’s Movement 1921-5; editor Clara Zetkin.

Die Leipziger Volkszeitung

[Leipzig People’s Gazette] German social-democratic daily published in Leipzig 1894-1933; became organ of USPD following 1917 SPD split.

Die Neue Zeit

[New Times] theoretical journal of SPD published in Stuttgart, monthly 1883-90, weekly 1890-1923; edited by Kautsky up to 1917.

Die Rote Fahne

[The Red Flag] daily newspaper of German CP; began publication 9 November 1918; founded by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg.

Dimitratos, Nikolaos

Secretary 1919-22 of Greek Socialist Workers Party, which later became CP; Third World Congress delegate; ousted and expelled as opportunist 1922.

Dimitrov, Georgi (1882-1949)

Joined Bulgarian SDP 1902; CC member from 1909 of left-wing Tesniaki faction, which became CP; Third World Congress delegate; secretary of Balkan Communist Federation 1926-7; directed West European Bureau of Comintern 1929-33; arrested in Germany March 1933 and charged with responsibility for Reichstag fire; acquitted and went to Russia; general secretary of Comintern 1935-43; prime minister of Bulgaria 1946-9.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804-81)

British politician and leader of Conservative Party; twice prime minister (1868, 1874-80); supported Turkey diplomatically


A reference to the French Socialist Party minority that opposed the majority’s decision in 1920 to join the Communist International and change the party’s name to Communist Party. The minority retained the old party’s name.

Dissmann, Robert (1878-1926)

Lathe operator; member SPD 1897; on staff of German British politician and leader of Conservative party; twice prime minister (1868, 1874-80); supported Turkey diplomatically during Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78. metalworkers union from 1900; critical of SPD vote for war credits 1914; joined USPD 1917; chair of metalworkers 1919; opposed USPD affiliation to Comintern 1920; rejoined SPD 1922.

Dittmann, Wilhelm (1874-1954)

Joined SPD 1894; Reichstag deputy 1912-33; opposed war credits 1915; founding member USPD 1917 and of its Executive Committee; jailed for anti-war activity 1918; member of SPD-USPD provisional government established by November 1918 revolution; attended Second World Congress; opposed affiliation to Third International 1920 and remained in rump USPD as co-chairman, fusing with SPD 1922; in Swiss emigration 1933-51.

Dombal, Thomas (Tomasz Dąbal) (1890-1938)

Leader of Polish peasants’ movement; led a local revolutionary government in Tarnobrzeg 1918; joined CP 1920; jailed 1921; moved to Soviet Russia 1923; a founder of Peasant International 1923; arrested 1937; died in prison.

Domski, Henryk (Stein) (1883-1937)

Journalist; member SDKPiL in Poland 1904; took part in Zimmerwald conference 1915; member Polish CP and its CC 1918; supported Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1923-28; expelled from CP 1928; readmitted 1930; expelled again 1935; arrested in USSR during Stalin purges 1936; executed.

Dondicol, Eugene (1874-1933)

Printer, bookkeeper; joined predecessor of French SP in Bordeaux 1893; elected to executive of unified SP 1905; member of CP and its CC 1921; a leader of Renoult current and opponent of united front tactic 1922; rejected 4WC decisions and helped form independent ‘Socialist Communist’ grouping 1923; withdrew from political activity in late 1920s.

Doriot, Jacques (1898-1945)

Labourer; joined SP youth during War; joined French CP 1920; 4WC delegate; head of CP youth 1923; jailed 1923-24; expelled from CP for advocating anti-fascist alliance with SP 1934; turned to fascism in 1934; active collaborator with Nazi occupation 1940; fought in German army 1943-44; killed in Germany by air attack.

Dormoy, Pierre (1876-1970)

Municipal worker in Paris; joined socialist movement 1892; co-founder of public sector union 1904; influenced by revolutionary syndicalism; co-founder of CP and alternate member of its executive 1921; 4WC delegate; left CP 1923; returned to SP 1925; active in anti-Nazi resistance in Menton (Alpes-Maritimes), where he was Socialist mayor and councillor 1945-59.

Dubus, Arthur (1880-1965)

Miner; unionist from 1893; member French SP from about 1905; co-founder of French CP in Pas-de-Calais department; its general secretary 1922-23; supporter of Renoult current; leader of miners’ cell of CP through 1930s; broke with CP in protest against Stalin-Hitler pact 1939; rejoined after Liberation.

Dugoni, Enrico (1874-1945)

Socialist from early 1890s; a leader of Italian SP and trade union confederation; SP delegate to Kienthal antiwar conference 1916; in SP right wing after War; took part in labour/SP delegation to Soviet Russia 1920; opposed formation of CP 1920; victim of several Fascist attacks; left SP with Turati 1922; arrested for anti-Fascist activities 1930 and 1932.

Dugoni, Enrico (1874-1945)

Joined Italian SP mid-1890s; a leader of Italian SP and CGL union federation; delegate to Kienthal Conference 1916; in SP right wing after War; took part in labour/SP delegation to Soviet Russia 1920; opposed formation of CP in 1921 split; victim of several Fascist attacks; left SP in split that founded reformist PSU; arrested for anti-Fascist activities 1930 and 1932.

Dumoulin, Georges (1877-1963)

Became CGT national treasurer 1910; supported Zimmerwald movement during War, but joined CGT right-wing majority afterward; an official for International Labour Office 1924-32; collaborator of Vichy regime during World War II.

Dunois, Amédée (1878-1945)

French anarchist writer; joined SP 1912; internationalist during War; supporter of Comintern 1920; member of CP and its executive from 1921; supporter of Left current in CP; protested expulsions of Trotsky supporters and ‘Bolshevisation’ 1925; quit CP 1927; rejoined SP 1930; active in resistance under Nazi occupation; arrested by Gestapo 1943 and 1944; died in concentration camp February 1945.

Dupilet, Jean-Baptiste (1880-1952)

Miner at age 11 in Denain (Nord), France; union activist; member of SP 1905; founded Denain unit of CP 1921; treasurer of national miners’ union 1922-29; alternate member of CP executive 1923; full member 1924-25; gave up union work but continued local CP activity in Pas-de-Calais and Nord regions; quit CP in protest against Stalin-Hitler pact 1939.

Duret, Jean (François Koral) (1900-1971)

Born in Poland; joined French CP as student in Paris 1921; supporter of Renoult current in CP; 4WC delegate; moved to Moscow after expulsion from France 1924; returned to France 1928; expelled from CP 1932; wrote works on Marxism and socialist planning; retained membership in CGT until death.

Düwell, Bernhard [b. 1891)

Joined SPD youth movement around 1910; conscripted into army 1914-18; joined USPD 1917; commissar of councils in Merseburg during 1918-19 revolutionary upsurge; part of KPD-USPD fusion 1920; supported Levi and was expelled from CP August 1921; joined KAG and its fusions with USPD and SPD.

Earsman, William (1884-1965)

Born in Scotland; lathe operator; moved to Australia 1910; member SP 1911; leader of metalworkers union 1915; influenced by IWW; co-founder of CP 1920; Third World Congress delegate; refused readmission to Australia 1923; moved to England; left CP about 1927; joined British Labour Party 1934.

Eberlein, Hugo (1887-1941)

Joined SPD 1906; internationalist and co-founder of Spartacus League during War; member German CP CC 1918; initially opposed, then abstained on Comintern formation at its founding congress 1919; a leader of adventurist wing of CP majority that led March Action 1921; supported Centre current of ‘conciliators’ 1924-28; stripped of leadership posts for opposing ultraleft turn 1928; fled Germany 1933; arrested in USSR during Stalin purges 1937; executed.

Ebert, Friedrich (1871-1925)

Joined SPD 1889; member of party executive committee 1905-19; succeeded Bebel as party co-chairman 1913; supported German war effort; as a leader of provisional government coming out of 1918 revolution, he joined with monarchists to defeat workers uprisings 1919-20; German president 1919-25.


Executive Committee of the Communist International.

Edwards, Alfred S. (Sullivan)

Lettish Communist based in Boston; secretary of Socialist Propaganda League, a Boston-based revolutionary group in Socialist Party, during War; district organiser of Boston Communists c. 1921; 4WC delegate representing a small group committed to maintaining underground CP 1922; subsequently left CP and maintained an independent underground Communist group in Boston and Cleveland through 1920s.

Eiduk, Aleksandr (1886-1938)

Latvian socialist; joined RSDLP 1903; a leader of Soviet security police after 1917; Soviet representative to U.S. agency providing relief during 1921 famine; executed during Stalin frame-up purges.

Einstein, Albert (1879-1955)

German-born physicist; originator of theory of relativity; also known as socialist and pacifist.

Emancipation of Labour Group

First Russian Marxist group, formed in 1883; leaders went on to found Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Emergency Technical Assistance

[Technische Nothilfe] organisation of strikebreakers formed by German government decree of 30 September 1919, signed by Noske, with stated purpose of maintaining essential services.

Engels, Frederick (1820-95)

Lifelong collaborator of Karl Marx; co-author of Communist Manifesto 1848; a leader of revolutionary democratic forces in 1848 German revolution; lived in England 1842-44 and from 1849; political and theoretical leader of Marxist forces after death of Marx.


Alliance of Britain, France and Russia before and during World War 1; term was used loosely of Allied powers led by Britain and France during and after the War; established 1907; term sometimes applied to all Allied powers in War.

Enver Pasha (1881-1922)

Turkish general; a leader of ‘Young Turk’ revolution of 1908, government leader 1913-18; went to Moscow and declared solidarity with Soviet government 1920, founding Union of Islamic Revolutionary Societies; attended Baku Congress 1920; joined anti-Soviet revolt in Central Asia 1921; killed in action against Red Army.

Erfurt programme

Programme adopted by the SPD of Germany at its 1891 congress in Erfurt.

Escherich, Georg (1870-1941)

Forester and German right-wing politician; founder of Orgesch, one of the most powerful proto-fascist military organisations, 1920; after it was banned, 1921, his private military ventures continued until Nazis took power 1933.

Estonian Independent Socialist Workers Party

organised March 1920 by members of SDP and SRs; entered into negotiations with Comintern; left-wing majority supported Comintern and split 1922 to form Estonian Working People’s Party; right wing fused with SDP 1925.

Ethem Nejad (1887-1921)

Educator; opponent of Ottoman autocracy; joined Turkish revolutionary group while living in Germany during War; joined Istanbul Communist Group after War; delegate to Baku Congress 1920; elected general secretary by founding congress of Turkish CP 1920; assassinated with other members of Mustafa Subhi group while attempting to re-enter Turkey January 1921.

Expanded Executive Committee

Meeting of the ECCI expanded to include delegates from the sections; two such conferences took place in 1922.

Fabre, Henri (1876-1969)

French socialist journalist; launched antiwar daily Le Journal du people 1916; joined French CP, while expressing criticisms of Comintern through his newspaper; expelled from Comintern by ECCI March 1922; expulsion not ratified by French CP until October 1922; continued left-wing journalistic and political activity until death.

Facta, Luigi (1861-1930)

Italian politician; many times Cabinet member 1903-22; last prime minister before Mussolini’s takeover, February to October 1922.

Faisal I [Faisal ibn Husayn] (1885-1933)

Born in Saudi Arabia; led Arab forces allied with Britain in War; declared king of Greater Syria after Arab military force occupied Damascus 1918; forced into exile by French invasion 1920; crowned king of Iraq in August 1921 under British auspices.

Faisal ibn Husayn (1883-1933)

Born in Arabia; led Arab forces allied with Britain in War; named by British as king of Greater Syria 1920 and then of Iraq 1921-33.

Faure, Ferdinand (1880-1963)

Clerk, café proprietor, printer; Freemason; joined French socialist movement in Saint-Étienne (Loire) about 1900; initially hesitant toward Comintern, took part in formation of CP and was elected to its executive 1921; 4WC delegate; rejected decisions of 4WC; expelled 1923; rejoined SP 1927.

Faure, Paul (1878-1960)

Joined French socialist movement 1901; supporter of pacifist wing during War; opposed 1920 decision to join Comintern and became general secretary of dissident SP; expelled 1944 for links to Vichy regime.

February Revolution

Uprising in Petrograd 23-27 February 1917 (according to calendar then used in Russia) that overthrew tsarism and led to creation both of a provisional government and a Russia-wide structure of workers’, soldiers’, and peasants’ soviets.

Federation of Manual and Intellectual Workers

[Union der Hand- und Kopfarbeiter, UHK] formed September 1921; united revolutionary workers outside ADGB; included both Communists and non-Communists; merged into ADGB 1925.

Feinstein, Wladyslaw (Leder) (1880-1937)

Joined SDKPiL in Poland 1900; member CP 1919; lived in Russia from 1921; worked in RILU apparatus 1921-24 and later in Soviet administration; died a victim of Stalin purges.

Fiedler, Franciszek (Keller) (1880-1956)

Writer and historian; member SDKPiL 1905; took part in 1905-7 revolution; founding member Polish CP and its CC 1918; 4WC delegate; in exile from middle 1920s; active in Resistance in occupied France; returned to Poland 1945; taught and wrote into 1950s.

Fimmen, Eduard [‘Edo’] (1881-1942)

Leader of Dutch trade union federation from 1907; co-secretary of Amsterdam International 1919-23.

Fischer, Ruth (Elfriede Eisler) (1895-1961)

Co-founder of Austrian CP 1918; moved to Berlin 1919; leader of ultraleft opposition in German CP; gained central leadership of CP 1924; alternate member ECCI 1924; ECCI intervention led to removal from German CP leadership 1925; supported United Opposition led by Trotsky and Zinoviev in Soviet CP 1926; expelled from German CP 1926; co-founder of oppositional Communist Leninbund 1928; collaborated with Trotsky 1933-36; in exile in France and U.S. from 1933; condemned in absentia in Moscow frame-up trials; remained socialist until death.

Flueras, Ioan (1882-1953)

Joined Hungarian SDP 1901 and became a leader of its Romanian section; member of provisional government of Transylvania 1918-20; member of Romanian socialist delegation in Moscow 1921 for discussions on Comintern affiliation, but was part of party minority that did not affiliate and became Romanian SDP 1921; president of General Confederation of Labour 1926-38; supported royalist dictatorship 1938-40; arrested by Stalinist regime 1948; died in prison.

Forbes, Rosita (1890-1967)

British traveller and writer; wrote extensively on travels in Middle East in 1920s.

Foster, William Z. (1881-1961)

Factory worker, longshoreman, and seaman; member U.S. SP 1901-9; briefly joined IWW 1909; worked within AFL unions from 1910; led strike of 350,000 steelworkers 1919; headed Trade Union Educational League in 1920s; joined Communist movement 1921; CP candidate for president 1924, 1928, 1932; supported Stalin course in Comintern; CP general secretary 1929-32 and from 1945.

Franken, Paul (1894-1944)

Joined SPD 1911, USPD 1917; participant in November 1918 revolution in Solingen; part of fusion with KPD 1920; represented KPD opposition at Third World Congress; left KPD 1922; joined KAG and its fusions with USPD and SPD; emigrated 1934; settled in Soviet Union; arrested 1937; died in Siberia.

Free Association of Employees

[Allgemeiner freier Angestelltenbund] established 1920 through amalgamation of socialist-oriented trade unions of technical and administrative employees; dissolved 1933 by Nazi regime.

Free Workers Union of Germany

[Freie Arbeiter-Union Deutschland, FAUD] anarcho-syndicalist trade union; founded 1919; 150,000 members at its peak; rejected dictatorship of proletariat and degenerated into sect; disbanded by Nazis 1933.


A secret fraternal order associated with the ideology of bourgeois liberalism; originated in masons’ guilds of the Middle Ages; gained influence across Europe in the eighteenth century and after.

Freiheit [Freedom]

Daily organ of USPD published in Berlin; began publication November 15, 1918; published until September 1922.

Frey, Josef (1882-1957)

Joined Austrian socialist students’ association at University of Vienna; staff member of SDP daily newspaper; president of council of soldiers at Vienna garrison during November 1918 revolution; leader of SDP left wing; expelled in 1920; joined Austrian CP January 1921; Third World Congress delegate; supported Trotsky-Zinoviev opposition 1926; expelled from CP 1927; in Trotskyist movement until 1932; emigrated to Switzerland 1938.

Friedländer, Paul (1893-1941?)

Joined Austrian SP youth 1916; co-founder Austrian CP 1918; member CC 1919; 4WC delegate; moved to Berlin 1926; emigrated to France 1933; interned 1939; expelled from CP for opposition to Hitler-Stalin pact 1939; died in Auschwitz.

Fries, Philipp (1882-1950)

Joined SPD 1900; worked with Karl Liebknecht during War; part of split that formed USPD 1917; joined CP as part of 1920 fusion; member of Levi’s KAG 1921, participating in its fusions with USPD and then SPD; imprisoned by Nazis 1933 and 1944; helped re-establish SPD in Cologne after War.


See Reuter, Ernst.

Friis, Jacob (1883-1956)

Member of Norwegian Labour Party and socialist journalist from 1909; internationalist and pacifist during War; joined Comintern 1919 together with party; delegate to Comintern Second and Third World Congresses; member ECCI 1920-1; supported Norwegian LP withdrawal from Comintern 1923; joined CP 1928 and remained a member until 1933; rejoined LP and was active in its left wing.

Frölich, Paul (1884-1953)

Joined SPD 1902; worked as journalist for party papers in Leipzig, Hamburg, and Bremen; a supporter of Zimmerwald Left during War; led International Communists of Germany [IKD], which became part of CP at 1918 founding congress; participant in Bavarian soviet republic 1919; member of CC 1919-23; Third World Congress delegate; expelled from CP 1928, joining Communist Party Opposition [KPO] and later Socialist Workers Party [SAP].

Fromont, Louis-Émile (1886-1953)

Automobile worker; secretary of French CP section in Bagnolet (Seine) 1921; supporter of Renoult current; nominated to CP executive by 4WC but not confirmed by CP national conference January 1923.

Frossard, Louis-Oscar (1889-1946)

Joined French SP 1905; pacifist during War; CP general secretary and leader of its Centre current 1920-2; quit CP January 1923; led ‘Socialist-Communist’ formation, then member SP 1927-35; several times minister; voted for dictatorial powers to Pétain 1940.

Fuad Pasha (1815-69)

Ottoman statesman; grand vizier 1860 and 1861; leader of Tanzimat administrative reform process.

Galliffet, Gaston, Marquis de (1830-1909)

French general; commander in brutal suppression of Paris Commune 1871; minister of war 1899-1900.

Gandhi, Mohandas (1869-1948)

Central leader of movement for Indian independence; head of Indian National Congress from 1920; led mass campaigns of civil disobedience and nonviolent cooperation with British authorities; called off mass civil disobedience 1922; jailed 1922-24; led ‘Quit India’ campaign against British rule during World War 2; assassinated shortly after achievement of Indian and Pakistani independence 1947.

Garchery, Jean (1872-1957)

Active in cooperative movement; joined French SP 1905; Paris city councillor 1919-33; co-founder of French CP 1921; supporter of Centre current; member CP executive from December 1921; expelled for protesting expulsion of other CP councillors 1929; co-founder of Worker-Peasant Party 1929; rejoined SP 1936; voted dictatorial powers to Petain 1940; expelled from SP 1944.

Garden, John (1882-1968)

Born in Scotland; sailmaker, clergyman; moved to Australia 1904; joined Labour Party by 1909; a leader of New South Wales labour during War; co-founder with Earsman of Australian CP 1920; 4WC delegate; elected to ECCI 1922; won readmission to Labour Party 1923; expelled from Labour Party 1924; quit CP and rejoined Labour Party 1926; left public life after fraud conviction 1948.

Gareis, Karl (1889-1921)

Joined USPD 1917, becoming its leader in Bavarian state parliament; assassinated by right-wingers June 1921.

Garvin, James Louis (1868-1947)

British journalist; editor of The Observer 1908-42; opposed Versailles Treaty as too harsh against Germany.

Gelsenkirchen Free Workers Union

Members of anarcho-syndicalist FAUD in Gelsenkirchen who left it November 1920 with 110,000 members; strongest in Rhineland-Westphalia coal district; CP members played leading role; joined RILU; in November 1921 fused with two other unions to form Manual and Intellectual Workers syndicalist union of Germany; dissolved into mainstream unions 1925.

General Confederation of Greek Workers

[GSEE] trade union federation founded 1918; voted to affiliate to RILU 1920; 60,000 members October 1920; under communist leadership 1920-6.

General Confederation of Labour

[CGL, Italy] formed 1906; allied with Socialist Party until late 1922; 2 million members September 1920, dropping to 1.1 million in 1921; expressed sympathy with RILU but remained affiliated to Amsterdam International; suppressed under Fascism.

General Confederation of Labour

[CGT, France] founded 1895; initially syndicalist in orientation; leadership followed reformist course from 1914; left wing driven out in 1921; 600,000 members in spring 1921; split became definitive December 1921 with expelled left forming CGTU [Unitary CGT]; CGT membership declined to 250,000 following split.

General German Trade Union Federation

[ADGB] founded 1919 to replace earlier social-democratic union federation; largest federation in Germany; aligned with SPD; over 7 million members in 1921; dissolved by Nazis 1933.

General Trade Union League, Greece

See General Confederation of Greek Workers.

General Union of Labour

[UGT, Spain] union federation formed 1888; close relationship with SP; over 200,000 members in October 1920.

General Workers Union of Germany

[Allgemeine Arbeiter-Union Deutschlands, AAUD] union federation founded February 1920 by ultraleft current that became KAPD; advocated factory committees to replace trade unions; 150,000 members in 1920-1, declining to 10,000 by end of 1921; maintained existence as sect until banned in 1933.

Gennari, Egidio (1876-1942)

Teacher; joined Italian SP 1897; a leader of its left wing; internationalist during War; SP political secretary 1920; supported Communists in 1921 Livorno split; a vice chairman of Presidium of Third World Congress; favoured fusion with SP 1922; elected to ECCI 1921; wounded several times by Fascists; forced into emigration 1926; carried out many Comintern assignments; died in USSR.

Genoa Conference

Convened 10 April to 19 May 1922 with Soviet participation in unsuccessful effort to promote economic reconstruction in Eastern Europe and normalised relations with Soviet Russia.

Geschke, Ottomar (1882-1957)

Metalworker; member of SPD 1910, USPD 1917, CP 1919; member ECCI 1924; supported CP’s left wing led by Ruth Fischer, later of Thaelmann’s pro-Stalin current; removed from most leadership functions 1929; jailed by Nazis 1933-40, 1944-45; active again in CP 1945.

Geyer, Anna (1893-1973)

Joined USPD 1917; part of KPD-USPD merger; member of CC; supported Levi and expelled from CP August 1921; joined KAG 1922, participating in its fusions with USPD and SPD; fled Germany 1933.

Geyer, Curt (1891-1967)

Joined SPD 1911 and became socialist journalist; leader of USPD from 1917; president of Leipzig Workers Council 1918-19; participated in USPD-KPD fusion 1920; member German CP Zentrale; KPD representative on ECCI February to March 1921; opposed March Action with Levi; expelled August 1921; joined KAG and its fusions with USPD and SPD; exiled 1933; served on SPD executive in exile; left SPD 1941; settled in London.

Geyer, Friedrich (1853-1937)

Joined German Social Democracy 1871; editor of Leipziger Volkszeitung 1890-4; part of split that formed USPD 1917; joined CP as part of 1920 fusion; member of Levi’s KAG 1921, participating in its fusions with USPD and then SPD.

Ghesquières, Henri (1863-1918)

Worker; joined socialist movement at age seventeen in Nord region of France; became a leader of the Guesdist wing of French socialism; often elected as deputy and municipal councillor in Lille; spoke against CGT policies in parliament 2 December 1911; defended this speech at subsequent SP Lyons congress 1912.

Gide, Charles (1847-1932)

Christian socialist; leader of the cooperative movement; author of Principles of Political Economy and other economic works.

Giolitti, Giovanni (1842-1928)

Italian prime minister five times during 1892-1921, including during 1920-1921; tolerated violent attacks by Fascist bands 1921 and initially supported Fascist regime 1922-4.

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-98)

British politician; main leader of Liberal Party 1868-94; four-time prime minister; opposed Britain’s diplomatic alignment with Turkey in 1870s.

Goldman, Emma (1860-1940)

Born in Russian Empire; lived in New York from 1885; anarchist from 1889; leading anarchist educator; jailed several times, including for opposing war 1917; deported to Soviet Russia 1919; first supported, then opposed Bolshevik rule; left Russia 1921; subsequently lived mostly in Western Europe; continued anarchist activity until death.

Goltz, Rüdiger von der (1865-1946)

German general; led German forces fighting the revolutionary forces and local nationalists in Finland and the Baltic region 1918-19.

Gompers, Samuel (1850-1924)

President of American Federation of Labor 1886-1924 (except for 1895); advocated collaboration with employers; favoured restriction of immigration; opposed industrial unionism; supported U.S. entry into War; member of labour commission at Versailles conference.

Gonzàlez, César Rodríguez

Journalist; leader of Spanish SP after war; favoured affiliation to Comintern; member CP and its general secretary 1921-24; 4WC delegate; returned to SP 1924.

Gorky, Maxim (1868-1936)

Russian novelist; Bolshevik supporter and financial backer during struggle against tsarism; tense relationship with Soviet Russia under Lenin; lived abroad 1921-8.

Gorter, Herman (1864-1927)

Writer and poet; joined Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party [SDAP] 1897; founder of De Tribune 1907; a leader of left-wing SDP after 1909 split; internationalist during War; supporter of Zimmerwald Left; CP founding member 1918; criticised Comintern policies from ultraleft standpoint; member of German KAPD 1921; left Comintern with it 1921.

Gouraud, Henri (1867-1946)

French general; headed French army in Syria 1919-23; led brutal suppression of popular uprising in Syria; military governor of Paris 1923-37.

Gourdeaux, Henri (1881-1961)

Postal worker; joined French SP before War; internationalist during War; co-founder of CP 1921; supporter of Centre current 1922; member of party executive/CC, with interruptions, 1921-47; member of CGTU executive 1922-35; a leader of anti-Nazi resistance; maintained ties with CP until death.

Grable, Edward F.

Grand president of U.S. Maintenance of Way Employees and Railway Shop Laborers 1920-22; kept union out of railway strike 1922; subsequently ousted as president by militant delegates at 1922 convention; appointed by President Harding to Railway Labor Board 1923.

Gramsci, Antonio (1891-1937)

Joined Italian SP 1913; secretary of its Turin section 1917; co-founder of SP weekly L’Ordine nuovo 1919; advocate of workers’ councils 1920-1; co-founder of CP 1921; represented party in Moscow 1922-3; Fourth World Congress delegate; as advocate of united front against Fascism, headed CP 1924-6; objected to campaign against Trotsky 1926; jailed by Fascists 1926; wrote celebrated Prison Notebooks; sickened by prison conditions, he died shortly after release.

Grassmann, Peter (1873-1939)

Joined SPD 1893; supported reformist wing; held leadership posts in printers’ union from 1894 and German trade union federation 1919-33; briefly arrested by Nazis 1933.

Graziadei, Antonio (1873-1953)

Economist, member Italian SP 1893; initially reformist, but radicalised during War, supporting Maximalist current; co-founder of CP 1921; 4WC delegate; attacked by Comintern leadership for expressing reservations regarding Marxist theory of value 1924; expelled for ‘revisionism’ 1928; readmitted to CP after fall of Fascism.

Graziadei, Antonio (1873-1953)

Economist, joined Italian SP 1893; initially reformist, but radicalised during War, supporting Maximalist current; supported Communists in 1921 Livorno Congress while seeking compromise with forces in Serrati current; delegate to Second and Fourth World Congresses; expelled for ‘revisionism’ 1928; readmitted to CP after fall of Fascism.

Grepp, Kyrre (1879-1922)

Socialist activist in Norway from about 1902; elected to Labour Party leadership as representative of left wing 1912; with Tranmael, led Labour Party into Comintern; chair of party 1918-22; member of ECCI 1919-22; died February 1922 of tuberculosis.

Grepp, Rachel (1879-1961)

Norwegian journalist; 4WC delegate representing majority in Labour Party 1922; joined majority in withdrawing from Comintern 1923; member of parliament 1928-36 and of Oslo city council 1922-49; active in struggle for women’s rights.

Grido del popolo

[People’s Voice] Italian syndicalist newspaper published in Turin; founded 1892.

Griffuelhes, Victor (1874-1922)

French anarcho-syndicalist; elected general secretary of CGT 1901; drafted Charter of Amiens 1906; resigned 1909 under accusation of financial mismanagement; continued as trade union journalist; later supported Zimmerwald movement and October Revolution.

Grimm, Robert (1881-1958)

Joined Swiss SDP 1899; editor-in-chief of Berner Tagwacht 1909-18; member of SDP Executive 1915-17, 1919-36; Swiss delegate to International Socialist Bureau from 1912; main organiser of Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences 1915-16; rejected entry into Comintern and helped organise Two-and-a-Half International. http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/g/ARCH00505.php

Grimm, Rosa (1875-1955)

Participant in Russian Revolution of 1905; active in student movement in Bern; founding member Swiss CP 1921; Third World Congress delegate; expressed oppositional opinions in 1920s; member of ECCI 1930-1; later joined SDP.

Gruber, Max von (1853-1927)

Austrian scientist; head of Hygienic Institute in Munich 1902-23; author of socio-political studies of birth rate and population; held that War was unavoidable as ‘biological necessity’.

Grün, Anna (1889-1962)

Pioneer in social work; co-founder of Austrian CP 1918; 4WC delegate; member Austrian CP political bureau 1924; forced into exile 1938; active in French anti-Nazi resistance; jailed 1944; active in Austrian CP after fall of Nazism.

Grün, Josef (1889-1969)

Born in Vienna; journalist; socialist from early age; became Communist as war prisoner in Russia 1918; member Austrian CP 1919; represented it in Moscow 1922; 4WC delegate; editor for Comintern’s Inprekorr from 1923; jailed in France 1939-40; returned to Austria after Liberation.

Guesde, Jules (1845-1922)

veteran of Paris Commune; among France’s first Marxists; from 1882 leader of French Workers Party, then SP; opponent of reformism until 1914; social patriot and minister of state without portfolio during War; opposed Comintern.

Guild socialism

A proposal for worker self-government of industry through national worker-controlled guilds.

Gumplowicz, Ludwig (1838-1909)

Sociologist and philosopher; born in Kraków, Poland; from 1875 professor in Graz, Austria; defended rights of ethnic minorities; favoured social welfare measures.

Guralsky, August (1890-1960)

Joined Jewish Bund in Kiev 1904; joined Bolsheviks 1918; Comintern emissary to KPD, together with Béla Kun and others, during March Action; member of Russian delegation to Third World Congress with consultative vote; returned to Berlin as ECCI representative 1922-4; supported Zinoviev opposition in Soviet CP 1926-8; jailed 1936-8; arrested 1950 and jailed in Siberia; died soon after release.

Hajdú, Gyula (1886-1973)

Lawyer; joined Hungarian SDP 1907; commissar during Hungarian soviet republic 1919; lived in exile after its fall; Third World Congress delegate; worked in Hungarian judiciary 1946-50; became professor in Budapest 1950.

Hajim ibn Muhayd, Fid’an Shaykh

A leader of fight to set up Kingdom of Syria, 1920-1.

Halle Congress

Gathering of Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany [USPD] held 12-17 October 1920; majority voted to accept Comintern’s Twenty-One Conditions and affiliate to it, fusing with KPD; right-wing minority split off and kept USPD name.

Handlíř, Jaroslav (1888-1942)

Member of Austro-Hungarian army in War, taken prisoner on Russian front; won to Bolshevism after October Revolution; helped found Czechoslovak communist group in Russia and represented it at First World Congress; returned to Czechoslovakia and became a leader of CP; briefly imprisoned for role in December 1920 strike; Third World Congress delegate; expelled from CP as rightist 1929; joined SDP; died at Auschwitz.


Ruling dynasty of Austria, then of Austria-Hungary; overthrown 1918.

Haqqi al-’Azm (1864-1955)

French-installed governor of Damascus 1920-2; prime minister of Syria 1932-4.

Harding, Warren (1865-1923)

Republican Party president of US 1921-3.

Harrington, John Lane (1865-1927)

British army officer and diplomat.

Hasrat Mohani, Maulana (1875-1951)

Leader of Muslim League of British India from 1916; poet in Urdu language; first nationalist leader to proclaim goal of independence 1921; chair of Muslim league conference 1921; sought Muslim and Hindu autonomy in united India; lived in India after partition 1947.

Hauth, Wilhelm (1895-1968)

Member of KPD National Trade Union Commission; aligned with Friesland-led KPD opposition in late 1921 and early 1922; member of Berlin city administration for SED in East Germany 1946-8.

Haywood, William D. [‘Big Bill’] (1869-1928)

Elected secretary-treasurer of Western Federation of Miners 1900; founding member and first chairman of IWW 1905; member of SP National Executive Committee, excluded in 1912 for his syndicalist outlook; became IWW secretary-treasurer 1913; arrested 1917 on frame-up charges of treason and sabotage, convicted and sentenced to twenty years’ imprisonment; jumped bail in 1921 and went to Soviet Russia, where he lived until his death; delegate to Third World Congress and first RILU congress 1921.

Heckert, Fritz (1884-1936)

Construction worker; joined SPD 1902; member Swiss socialist movement 1908-11; head of construction workers union in Chemnitz 1912-18; member Spartacus League during War; chaired workers and soldiers council in Chemnitz during November 1918 revolution; CP founding member; CC alternate 1919, full member from 1920; delegate to Third World Congress and elected to ECCI 1921; briefly minister in Saxony government 1923; represented German CP in Moscow 1932-4; member of RILU executive board from 1920; died in USSR before great Stalin purges.

Heiman, Julius (d. c. 1989)

Active in Socialist Propaganda League, a precursor of U.S. CP, 1915-19; prominent in U.S. workers’ economic aid to Soviet Russia; chief assistant to Rutgers in establishment of international cooperative in Kuzbas region of Russia 1922-26; active in Scottsboro Boys defence 1934; performed business services for Soviet government into the 1940s; named in House Un-American Activities Committee red-baiting report 1948.

Heine, Heinrich (1797-1856)

German poet and writer; lived in France from 1831; associate of utopian socialists; friend of Karl Marx; supporter of movement for German national freedom.

Heine, Maurice (1884-1940)

French writer; won to anti-colonialism by youthful experiences in Algeria; campaigned in Paris for foundation of French CP 1919-20; led revolutionary-syndicalist current in Paris CP; an early defender of Sacco and Vanzetti; expelled from CP 1923; signed surrealist manifesto for independent revolutionary art 1938.

Helfferich, Karl (1872-1924)

German financer, politician, and economist; treasury secretary 1915-16; secretary of the interior 1916-17, serving as acting vice-chancellor; became German ambassador to Russia 1918.


See Appel, Jan.

Henderson, Arthur (1863-1935)

Iron moulder; organiser for British Iron Founders union 1892; as union leader, favoured moderate course and avoidance of strikes; member Labour Party from its formation and of its right wing; three times party leader; social chauvinist during War; cabinet member 1924 and 1929-31.

Henriet, Arthur (1866-1954)

Co-founder of anarchist group in Ardennes region 1893; active in French cooperative movement from 1895; became leader of socialist cooperatives; a leader of pro-Communist wing of cooperatives 1919-25; member 4WC Presidium; removed from leadership positions for signing protest against ‘Bolshevisation’ 1925.

Herriot, Edouard (1872-1957)

Leading figure in French Radical Party; minister in nine cabinets and three times premier; jailed by Nazis during occupation; president of French assembly 1947-54.

Hervé, Gustave (1871-1944)

Joined French socialist movement 1899; led ultraleft tendency in SP before War, calling for rebellion and draft resistance to halt threat of war; became pro-war ultra-nationalist in 1914; expelled from SP 1916; sympathetic to fascism in 1920s; initial supporter of Vichy regime during World War II.

Hewlett, William J. [d. 1921)

originally from South Wales Socialist Society delegate to founding congress of British CP 1920 as member of Communist Unity Group; delegate to Third World Congress and first RILU congress; died in train accident in Soviet Russia.

Hildenbrand, Karl (1864-1935)

Typographer; activist in German printers’ union; editor of SPD newspaper in Württemburg 1892-1902; parliamentary deputy for Stuttgart 1903-32; member SPD executive in early 1920s; jailed by Nazis for five months 1933.

Hilferding, Rudolf (1877-1941)

Physician, economist, and Marxist theoretician; joined socialist movement as student 1893; based in Germany from 1906; published Finance Capital, containing theory of imperialism, in 1910; opposed SPD support of war credits after 1914; joined USPD 1918; opposed Comintern; rejoined SPD 1922; minister of finance 1923, 1928-29; forced into exile 1933; arrested by French Vichy regime 1941; tortured and killed by Hitler’s Gestapo.

Hilferding, Rudolf (1877-1941)

Joined socialist movement as student 1893; based in Germany from 1906; author of Finance Capital 1910; opposed SPD support of war credits after 1914; joined USPD 1918; opposed Comintern, remaining in rump USPD 1920; rejoined SPD in 1922 fusion; government minister of finance 1923, 1928-9; forced into exile 1933; arrested by French Vichy regime 1941; tortured and killed by Gestapo.

Hillquit, Morris (1869-1933)

Founder and central leader of US SP from 1901; supporter of centrist current within international social democracy; prominent figure in Two-and-a-Half International 1921-3.

Hindenburg, Paul von (1847-1934)

German field marshal during War; German president 1925-34; appointed Hitler as chancellor 1933.

Hirossik, Janos (1887-1950)

Secretary of hotel workers union from 1912; founding member Hungarian CP 1918; commissar in Slovakia during Hungarian soviet republic, emigrating after its defeat; Third World Congress delegate; CC member 1926-33; participant in resistance during World War II; withdrew from political activity after 1945.

Hirsch-Duncker unions

German trade unions founded by Max Hirsch and Franz Duncker in 1868; asserted identity of interests between workers and employers and advocated class peace; membership of around 225,000 in 1921.

Hizb al-Watani party

[National Party] Egyptian revolutionary nationalist organisation formed as secret society to fight British occupation 1907; right wing split off to join Wafd party in 1919-20; left wing oriented to popular masses but was unable to present revolutionary alternative.

Hodges, Frank (1887-1947)

Coal miner; union organiser 1912; secretary of miners’ union 1918-23; member Sankey commission, which recommended nationalisation of coal 1919; shared responsibility for collapse of miners’ strike 1921; advocated that miners work longer hours 1925; ultimately broke with labour movement and became successful businessman.

Hoelz, Max (1889-1933)

Worker; joined USPD during War; joined German CP 1919; led workers’ armed detachments in Saxony 1920-21; expelled from CP for indiscipline and joined KAPD 1920; jailed in frame-up for murder 1921; freed after appeal by Bertolt Brecht, Thomas Mann, Albert Einstein, and others 1928; rejoined CP; emigrated to USSR 1929; developed criticisms of Stalin regime; drowned under mysterious circumstances; later discovered to have been target of frame-up by Stalin’s secret police.

Hoernle, Edwin (1883-1952)

Poet, clergyman; left church and joined SPD 1910; member Spartacus League during War, then CP; member CC 1921-24; member ECCI 1922; specialist on agrarian issues; dropped from CC as supporter of Brandler current 1924; Reichstag deputy 1924-33; took refuge in USSR under Hitler; held posts in East Germany after 1945.

Hoetzsch, Otto (1876-1946)

German academic and politician; member of Reichstag during 1920s for right-wing German National People’s Party.

Höfer, Karl (1862-1939)

German officer during War; commander of Freikorps in suppression of Polish insurgents in Upper Silesia 1921; later became officer in Nazi SS.

Hoffman, Adolph (1858-1930)

Joined German social democracy 1876; delegate to founding congress of Second International 1889; elected to Reichstag 1904 and to Prussian parliament 1908; attended Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences during War; part of split that formed USPD 1917; joined CP as part of 1920 fusion; joined Levi’s KAG 1921, participating in its fusions with USPD and then SPD.

Höglund, Karl Zeth (1884-1956)

Journalist; joined Swedish SDP 1904; campaigned for Norway’s right to independence 1905; internationalist and supporter of Zimmerwald Left during War; supporter of October Revolution; helped found Left Social Democratic Party 1917 and led it into Comintern; Third World Congress delegate; elected to ECCI 1922; criticised Moscow control and left Comintern 1924, forming independent socialist faction; rejoined SDP 1926; mayor of Stockholm 1940-50.


Ruling dynasty of Prussia and Germany; overthrown 1918; last ruling Hohenzollern was Wilhelm II (1859-1941), emperor of Germany 1888-1918.

Hörsing, Friedrich Otto (1874-1937)

Joined SPD 1894; governor in Prussian Saxony 1919-27; led suppression of workers during March Action 1921; expelled from SPD and founded German Social Republican Party 1932.

Horthy, Miklós (1868-1957)

Austro-Hungarian naval commander during War; a leader of counterrevolutionary forces that crushed Hungarian soviet republic 1919 and carried out white terror; regent and dictator of Hungary 1920-44.

Hourwich, Nicholas (1882-1934)

Member of American SP’s Russian socialist federation 1917; rallied to communism after October Revolution; a founder of CP of America; delegate to Second and Third World Congresses, opposing attempt to build legal CP; remained in Soviet Russia.

Hubin, Georges (1863-1947)

A leader of Belgian Workers Party; member of parliament for forty-seven years; Belgian minister of state 1945.

Hughes, Charles Evans (1862-1948)

US secretary of state 1921-5; chief justice of Supreme Court 1930-41.

Huiswoud, Otto (Billings) (1893-1961)

Born in Suriname; printer; Black liberation fighter; moved to New York 1910; joined U.S. SP 1918; co-founder of U.S. CP 1919; 4WC delegate; met with Lenin; editor of Negro Worker and leader of American Negro Labor Congress; travelled widely on Comintern assignments; settled in Amsterdam 1949; took part in First International Congress of Black Writers and Artists with Alouine Diop, Aimé Césaire, Franz Fanon, and Richard Wright 1956; member U.S. CP until death.

Hula, Břetislav (1894-1937)

Joined Bolsheviks 1917 as Czech living in Russia; returning to Czechoslovakia, he became editor of Svoboda; delegate to Second World Congress and elected to ECCI 1920; imprisoned for communist activities 1921; expelled 1925 as right opportunist.

Humbert-Droz, Jules (1891-1971)

Clergyman; joined Swiss SDP 1911; internationalist during War; founding member CP 1921; helped lead Comintern work in Latin countries of Europe and Latin America; delegate to Second through Fourth World Congresses; elected to ECCI 1921; aligned with Bukharin in late 1920s; removed from Comintern posts 1928; in disfavour with Stalin leadership until 1935; leader of Swiss CP 1935-41; expelled 1943; joined SDP and became its secretary 1947-58; leader of dissident SP from 1959; in final years, supporter of Algerian freedom struggle and anti-war activist.

Husni El-Arabi, Mahmud

Lawyer; co-founder Cairo branch of Egyptian SP 1920, which became CP 1922; member CC of CP from 1922; 4WC consultative delegate 1922; jailed during strike movement 1924; expelled from CP 1927; lived in Germany 1933-40; active in Union of the Peoples of the Nile Valley in 1940s.

Huysmans, Camille (1871-1968)

Joined Belgian Workers Party 1887; journalist; secretary of International Socialist Bureau of Second International from 1905; secretary of Socialist International 1939-44; chairman of Belgian House of Representatives 1936-9, 1954-8; Belgian premier 1946-7.

Ibn Saud, Abd al Aziz (1880-1953)

From 1901 worked to revive ruling family dynasty in Arabia; allied with British during War; founder and king of Saudi Arabia 1932, ruling until his death.


See Independent Labour Party.

Independent Labour Party

[ILP] British social democratic party formed 1893; played leading role in formation of Labour Party, affiliating to it 1906-32; majority took pacifist position during War; 45,000 members April 1920; affiliated to Two-and-a-Half International 1921; minority split to join CP.

Independent Social Democracy of Estonia

See Estonian Independent Socialist Workers Party.

Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany

[USPD] formed 1917 by left critics of SPD majority leadership; 800,0000 members end of 1920; majority fused with CP December 1920; minority retained name until merger with SPD 1922.


A reference to the German USPD (Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany) specifically, and to the Two-and-a-Half International more generally.

Industrial Workers of the World

[IWW, Australia] established in Australia 1907; participated in 1916 miners strike against War and conscription; declared illegal during War, with principal leaders convicted of ‘high treason’; many members joined CP after 1920.

Industrial Workers of the World

[IWW, United States] founded 1905 as revolutionary syndicalist union; opposed US participation in War; suffered severe repression 1917-18; sent delegates to founding RILU congress 1921, but rejected affiliation to it; many militants joined CP; went into rapid decline in 1920s.

Inkpin, Albert (1884-1944)

Joined Social Democratic Federation 1906; general secretary of British SP 1913-20, leading it to fusion that created CP; general secretary of CP 1920-2, 1923-9; jailed for Communist propaganda activities 1921; elected honorary president of Third World Congress; secretary-general of Friends of the Soviet Union 1930-44.


Internationale Presse-Korrespondenz, the Comintern’s German-language international newsletter, published several times a week from September 1921.

International Council of Trade and Industrial Unions

[Mezhsoprof] founded 15 July 1920 at meeting of revolutionary unions called on initiative of the ECCI and All-Russia Central Trade Union Councils; became RILU in 1921.

International Federation of Trade Unions

[IFTU, Amsterdam International] founded by reformist-led unions at July 1919 congress in Amsterdam; viewed as continuation of federation founded in 1901 (adopting IFTU name in 1913) and destroyed by War; 24 million members in 1921.

International Labour Office

Founded in 1919 as an agency of the League of Nations concerned with labour conditions; now the International Labour Organisation, a United Nations agency.

International Labour Organisation

Founded in 1919 as agency of League of Nations concerned with labour conditions, with International Labour Office in Geneva; now a United Nations agency.

International Socialist Bureau

Executive committee of Second International formed 1900 with headquarters in Brussels; last meeting held July 1914.

International Socialist League

[South Africa] founded 1915; internationalist position during War; supported October Revolution; adopted Comintern conditions of membership January 1921; founded CP July 1921.

Internationale, Die

Theoretical magazine of the KPD.

Internationalist Socialist Party of the Ruthenian People

Founded March 1920 by former members of Hungarian soviet republic and returning war prisoners from Soviet Russia; merged with left wing of SDP of Slovakia January 1921; joined in creation of Czechoslovak CP May 1921.

Isakov, Nahim (1877-1932)

Lawyer; joined revolutionary Tesniak wing of Bulgarian SDP 1903; member of Tesniak and Bulgarian CP Control Commission 1909-19, 1922-23; emigrated to Vienna 1924; elected to CC 1925; member secretariat of International Red Aid 1927-30; died in Moscow.

Italian Socialist Party [PSI]

Founded 1892; participated in Zimmerwald movement during War; affiliated to Comintern 1919; refused to expel reformist right wing; left wing split off at January 1921 Livorno Congress to form CP; 200,000 members before Livorno Congress, dropping to 112,000 by October 1921 and 65,000 a year later; sent representatives to Third World Congress; expelled Turati and right wing 1922; pro-Comintern minority subsequently joined CP.

Itschner, Hans Heinrich (1887-1962)

Anarcho-syndicalist before War; became one of first Swiss Communists after 1917; first representatives of Swiss CP on ECCI 1919-20; expelled for indiscipline 1932; subsequently became anarchist. #Kom Biog, SC


Industrial Workers of the World; a syndicalist trade union operating in several countries.

Jacob, Joseph (1896-1976)

Joined French SP youth about 1910; secretary of textile workers union in Troyes, France, 1920; leader of textile strike 1921; active in Russian famine relief 1921; elected to CGTU executive 1922; supporter of Centre current in CP; attacked for supporting opposition in Russian CP 1927; opposed Comintern’s ultraleft turn 1928; expelled for taking part in electoral alliance with SP 1932; joined pro-Fascist party during Nazi occupation, for which he was jailed 1945.

Jacob, Mathilde (1873-1943)

SPD member who worked as secretary to Rosa Luxemburg; joined KPD; collaborator of Paul Levi; followed him into SPD; died in concentration camp.

Jacquemotte, Joseph (1883-1936)

Joined Belgian Workers Party 1906; permanent secretary of Union of Socialist Employees 1910-24; moved to left during War; leader of left-wing faction of Workers Party; expelled 1921; Third World Congress delegate; his group fused with CP in September 1921 and he was elected to CC; became general secretary 1934.

Jansen, I

See Proost, Jan.

Jauhar, Maulana Muhammad Ali (1878-1931)

A leader of Muslims in struggle against British rule in India; joined Muslim League 1906; its president 1918; at first allied with Indian National Congress but broke with it in late 1920s; brother of Shaukat Ali.

Jaurès, Jean (1859-1914)

Central leader of French SP from its foundation 1905; advocated reformist positions; resisted imperialist war; assassinated at outbreak of War.

Javadzadeh, Mir Ja’far [Ja’far Pishevari] (1892-1947)

Born in Iran; joined RSDLP in Baku and helped found Adalat [Iran Justice] Party 1917; returned to Iran and became founding member of CP; Third World Congress delegate; member of CC until his arrest in 1930; imprisoned in Iran until 1941; prime minister of Autonomous Government of (Iranian) Azerbaijan 1945-6.

Jean, Renaud (a.k.a. Renaud-Jean): (1887-1961)

Socialist and activist for peasant rights; director of French CP’s work among peasants 1921-39; parliamentary deputy 1920-40; 4WC delegate; opposed to Comintern’s ultraleft policies after 1928; opposed to Stalin-Hitler pact, he refused to publicly repudiate it and was jailed 1939; despite disagreements, stayed in CP until death.

Jewish Workers League See Bund.

Jílek, Bohumil (1892-1963)

Leader in prewar SP; member Czechoslovak CP and its CC 1921; leader of its left opposition 1922; expelled September 1922 but readmitted by 4WC; 4WC consultative delegate; CP general secretary 1925; member ECCI 1928-29; expelled as ‘rightist’ 1929; joined Czech SP; emigrated to U.S. 1948.

Jogiches, Leo (1867-1919)

A central leader of SDKPiL 1893-1914; close collaborator of Rosa Luxemburg; moved to Berlin 1900 and from then on was active in both German and Polish movements; central organiser of Spartacus League and leader of German CP; murdered by government troops March 1919.

Johanssen, Karl (1874-1931)

Initially active outside workers’ movement; was judge in Congo; became lead writer on international affairs for Norwegian Labour Party Social-Demokraten but did not join party; criticised stand of Comintern in Italian split, Soviet prosecution of Socialist-Revolutionary oppositionists, and other questions 1921-22; came under sharp criticism from Labour Party; expelled from Comintern by 4WC 1922; continued to write for Labour Party; early radio journalist.

Johnson, Thomas (1872-1963)

Born in Liverpool; active in Belfast labour movement after 1902; secretary of Irish Trade Union Congress 1920-28; moderate supporter of Irish republicanism; accepted Anglo-Irish treaty 1921; reformist leader of Irish Labour Party 1922-27; member of Irish Dàil (parliament) 1922-27; supported Labour Party until death.

Johnstone, Jack (1881-1942)

Born in Scotland; welder, construction worker; joined SP in Canada 1903; joined IWW 1906; joined U.S. CP 1920; supporter of Foster wing of CP; 4WC delegate; leader of U.S. Trade Union Educational League in 1920s; U.S. representative in Red International of Labour Unions 1923-28; taught in Canadian CP school in 1930s.

Jones, David Ivon (1883-1924)

Born in Wales, moved to South Africa 1910; joined South African Labour Party 1911; founding member of International Socialist League 1915, becoming its first secretary-editor; attended Second and Third World Congresses; one of first English-language translators of Lenin’s works; died of tuberculosis.

Joss, William (1884-1966?)

Born in Scotland; member of Independent Labour Party 1903-10; 1918-21; member of British CP 1921; 4WC delegate; member CP organisation bureau 1926; backed Stalin’s ultraleft turn 1928; member CC 1927-32; remained in CP until death.

Jouhaux, Léon (1879-1954)

French unionist; general secretary of CGT from 1909; social patriot during War; led split of CGT to prevent Communists from gaining control; supporter of Popular Front 1936; in concentration camp during Nazi occupation; broke with then Communist-led CGT and launched Force Ouvrière union federation 1948.


[Youth International] monthly magazine of Communist Youth International; published 1919-28; 160,000 press run in 1921.

Julien, Charles-André (1891-1991)

University professor; joined French SP 1911 in Algeria; became president of Federation of the League for the Rights of Man in North Africa 1917-18; became CP member after Tours Congress 1920; CP permanent delegate for propaganda in North Africa from 1921; Third World Congress delegate; left CP 1926; later rejoined SP; French secretary-general of High Committee of North Africa under Popular Front government; left SP 1958 and joined predecessor of Unified Socialist Party [PSU]; supporter of Algerian independence struggle.

Kabakchiev, Khristo (1878-1940)

Joined Bulgarian SDP 1897; member of left-wing Tesniaki wing from 1905; editor-in-chief of its central organ 1908; member Bulgarian CP and its CC from 1919; represented ECCI at Halle and Livorno congresses 1920-1; jailed for three years after 1923 insurrection; lived in Moscow from 1926; lost leadership posts in Bulgarian CP and ECCI 1928; jailed during Stalin purges 1937-8.


See Communist Working Group.

Kahr, Gustav Ritter von (1862-1934)

Right-wing German politician; prime minister of Bavaria March 1920 to September 1921; first endorsed and then opposed Nazis’ Munich putsch; abducted and murdered during Nazis’ ‘Night of the Long Knives’.

Kamenev, Lev Borisovich (1883-1936)

Joined RSDLP 1901; became Bolshevik 1903; Bolshevik leader in St. Petersburg 1906-7; went to Geneva 1908; arrested and exiled to Siberia 1914-17; in Petrograd 1917; elected to CC at 1917 conference; elected president of Moscow Soviet 1918; member of RCP politburo; elected to ECCI at Third World Congress; allied with Stalin and Zinoviev against Trotsky 1923-5; member of joint opposition with Trotsky 1926-7; expelled 1927; recanted and reinstated 1928; expelled again 1932; condemned to death and executed in first Moscow Trial.


See Rydygier, Aleksander Juliusz.

Kampffmeier, Paul (1864-1945)

German poet, writer, political theorist; initially leaned toward anarchism, then joined SPD; active in ‘Garden City’ town planning movement; director of SPD party archives 1921-33.


Communist term for an ultraleft party similar to the KAPD.


See Communist Workers Party of Germany.

Kaplan, Faina (Fanny) (1890-1918)

Russian Socialist-Revolutionary; jailed 1906-17; wounded Lenin in assassination attempt 1918; executed.

Kapp putsch

A right-wing military coup in Germany launched on 13 March 1920; led by Wolfgang Kapp; rapidly defeated by a general strike and armed workers’ resistance.

Kapp, Wolfgang (1858-1922)

Reactionary Prussian politician; led attempted coup March 1920 to overthrow German republic and establish right-wing dictatorship; defeated by general strike and armed workers’ resistance.


The delegate lists of the Third World Congress in the Comintern archives show no one by this name. The reference could possibly be to Karim Hakimov (1892-1938), raised as Muslim, he joined revolutionary movement as student; in 1918-19, a Red Army commander and member of Orenburg Muslim Revolutionary Military Committee; secretary of Central Committee of Turkestan CP 1920-1; later Soviet ambassador to Saudi Arabia; arrested and shot during Stalin purges.

Karl I (1887-1922)

Last ruling member of Hapsburg dynasty in Austria-Hungary; emperor of Austria and king of Hungary 1916-18; overthrown by November 1918 revolution.

Kasian, Sarkis Ivanovich [Ter-Kasparian] (1876-1937)

Joined Bolsheviks 1905 in Armenia; leader of Tbilisi Bolsheviks 1912-14; chairman of Armenian Committee of Russian CP 1919-20; delegate to Third World Congress; chairman of Armenian SSR Central Executive Committee 1928-30; arrested 1937 and shot.

Kasparova, Varsenika (1888-1941)

of Tatar origin; teacher; Left Communist after 1917; organiser of political commissars in Red Army 1920; elected to Comintern’s International Women’s Secretariat by Second and Third Conferences of Communist Women 1921 and 1924; 4WC delegate; head of its work among peoples of the East; head of women’s division of Comintern commission for the East; assigned to remain in Moscow when IWS moved to Berlin 1922; active in Left Opposition against Stalinism; jailed during Stalin frame-up purges; murdered in prison camp.

Katayama, Sen (1859-1933)

Co-founder of Japanese SDP 1901; moved to U.S. 1914; active in left wing of U.S. SP during war; founded Japanese Communist group in New York 1919; represented Comintern in Mexico 1921; moved to Moscow 1922; member 4WC Presidium; member ECCI from 1922; continued activity in Comintern until death.

Katterfeld, Ludwig (Carr) (1881-1974)

Born in Alsace, then part of Germany; member U.S. SP 1905 and its left wing during War; prominent leader of U.S. Communist movement from its formation in 1919; represented it in Moscow for several periods; member ECCI 1921-24; a leader of ‘Goose Caucus’ calling for U.S. CP to remain underground 1922; member 4WC Presidium; expelled from CP 1929.

Kautsky, Karl (1854-1938)

Born in Prague; joined Austrian Social Democracy 1874; collaborator of Engels; co-founder and leading editor of Die Neue Zeit 1883-1917; prominent Marxist theorist and opponent of revisionism before 1914; centrist apologist for social chauvinism during War; joined USPD 1917; opponent of October Revolution; supporter of Two-and-a-Half International 1921-3; rejoined SPD in 1922 fusion; moved to Vienna 1924; fled Nazis 1938 and died in exile.

Keim, Antoine (Ker) (1886-1923)

Teacher; won to socialism during War; joined French SP 1919; co-founder of CP and member of its executive 1921; responsible for party’s international relations; supported Centre current; 4WC delegate; accepting 4WC decisions, resigned from Freemasons and from leadership posts in party.

Keller. See Fiedler, Franciszek.

Kemal Pasha, Mustafa [Atatürk] (1881-1938)

Turkish general; led independence struggle 1918-23; founder of Turkish republic and its president, 1923-38.


Movement and ideology of the Turkish struggle for national independence, led by Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk).


See Keim, Antoine.

Kerensky, Alexander (1881-1970)

Russian Socialist-Revolutionary; prime minister of Russian Provisional Government July to November 1917; emigrated 1918.

Kerensky, Alexander (1881-1970)

Russian Socialist-Revolutionary; prime minister of Russian Provisional Government July to November 1917; overthrown by October Revolution; emigrated 1918.

Kerošević, Juro (b. 1900)

Miner; participant in general strike of Bosnian miners 1920; for his role in strike was condemned to death February 1922; after international defence campaign, sentence commuted to 20 years imprisonment December 1922; released 1937; participant in anti-Nazi liberation struggle 1943.

Kerran, F.L. (1883-1949)

Joined ILP 1906; British SP 1908; imprisoned four years without charge during War; founding member CP and member of its Executive 1920; Third World Congress delegate; left CP 1923; subsequently active in Labour Party.

Khinchuk, L.M. (1868-1944)

Socialist from 1890; Menshevik 1903; chair of Moscow soviet March to September 1917; joined Bolsheviks 1920; 4WC delegate; held posts in Soviet administration of diplomacy, cooperatives, commerce.

Khinchuk, Lev Mikhailovich (1868-1944)

Socialist from 1890; Menshevik 1903; chair of Moscow Soviet March to September 1917; joined Bolsheviks 1920; Third World Congress delegate and chair of commission on cooperatives; held posts in Soviet administration of diplomacy, cooperatives, commerce; arrested 1938; died in prison.

Kibalchich, Liuba Russakova (1898-1984)

Grew up in Rostov; family forced to flee Russia; Liuba returned after revolution and became companion of Victor Serge 1919; stenographer and typist for Comintern; suffered Stalinist repression from 1929; fell victim to severe mental illness; left Soviet Union with Serge 1936; died in French mental hospital.

Kilbom, Karl (1885-1961)

Metalworker; joined Swedish socialist movement 1903; secretary of Young Social Democratic Union 1914-17; internationalist and pacifist stance during War; founding member of Left Social Democratic Party 1917 and its transformation to CP in 1921; elected to ECCI at Third World Congress; expelled 1929 for ‘rightist deviation’; founded dissident Communist party that changed its name to Swedish Socialist Party in 1934; rejoined SDP 1938.

Kingissepp, Viktor (1888-1922)

Born in Estonia; joined Bolsheviks 1906; edited Bolsheviks’ Estonian-language newspaper; parliamentary deputy 1912-17; leader of underground Estonian CP from 1918; arrested by Estonian secret police in May 1922 and executed for treason.

Kiràly, Albert (1883-1939)

Member Hungarian SDP 1900-19 and CP 1919-21, Third World Congress delegate; worked in Moscow for Red Sports International 1921; worked in Peasants International [Krestintern] 1924-32; arrested and died during Stalin purges.

Kitchlew, Saifuddin (1888-1963)

Leader of the Muslim League of India from 1918; colleague of Gandhi in Indian National Congress; repeatedly arrested in 1930s; opposed partition of India 1947.


Latvian Communist; jailed and sentenced to death 1922. Could be either Aleksandrs Kļavs-Kļaviņš (1888-1937) or Augusts Kļavs-Kļaviņš (d. 1937), both of whom remained active in the Communist movement into the 1930s and were executed in the USSR during the Stalin frame-up purges. A. Klavs was elected to the soviet of Latvian Sharpshooters (Izkolastrel) December 1917.

Knight, Joseph R. [Morgan]

Main organiser of One Big Union in Ontario and member of Canadian SP; sympathiser of CP; attended Third World Congress and founding RILU congress; joined CP on his return and became CC member.

Knights of Labor

First national US labour federation; founded 1869; reached peak membership of 700,000 in 1886; largely disappeared with creation of American Federation of Labor.

Kobetsky, Mikhail (1881-1937)

Member RSDLP 1903; Bolshevik; often arrested; in exile 1908-17; worked in Comintern apparatus 1919-24; elected to ECCI 1920; 4WC delegate; worked in commissariat of foreign affairs from 1924; arrested and executed during Stalin frame-up purges.

Kobler, Aleksandar (1889-1974)

Born in Slovenia; railway worker; joined Bosnian SDP 1907; member Yugoslav CP 1919; member CP’s Slovenian regional committee 1921; 4WC delegate; secretary of metalworkers union 1922-24; jailed 1924; emigrated 1926; settled in USSR.

Koenen, Wilhelm (1886-1963)

Joined German SPD 1904 and USPD 1917; and member of USPD Central Committee from 1919; commissar of Workers and Soldiers Councils in Halle-Merseburg 1918; helped lead KPD-USPD merger 1920; a vice chairman of Presidium of Third World Congress; in exile 1933-45; member of East German CP [SED] CC from 1946; criticised after 1953 workers’ rebellion for ‘lack of vigilance’.

Köhler, Bruno (1900-89)

Member of Sudetenland SDP in Austrian empire; became member of Sudetenland CP, which unified with Czechoslovak CP 1921; Third World Congress delegate from Czechoslovak Communist Youth; CC member from 1929; member of ECCI 1933-5; in exile 1938-47; member of CC 1952-64; expelled 1966 for having participated in repression during 1950s.

Kolarov, Vasil (1877-1950)

School teacher; joined Bulgarian SDP 1897 and its revolutionary Tesniak wing 1903; member of Tesniaki CC 1905; represented it at Zimmerwald Conference 1915; secretary of Bulgarian CP 1919-23; a vice chairman of Presidium of Third World Congress; ECCI member from 1921; a leader of failed Bulgarian uprising 1923; lived in USSR 1923-45; president of Peasant International 1928-39; signed declaration dissolving Comintern 1943; returned to Bulgaria 1944; prime minister 1949-50.

Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasilievich (1874-1920)

Tsarist admiral; head of White armies in Siberia and the Whites’ ‘supreme ruler’ of Russia 1918-20; defeated by Red Army; captured and executed.

Kollontai, Alexandra Mikhailovna (1872-1952)

Joined RSDLP 1899; cooperated with Mensheviks from 1906; specialised in work among proletarian women; lived in emigration 1908-17; joined Bolsheviks 1915; returned to Russia 1917 and became member of Bolshevik CC and editor of its women’s journal; commissar of social welfare after October Revolution; head of Women’s Section of Central Committee 1920-2; leader of Workers Opposition 1921-2, giving report on its behalf to Third World Congress; subsequently worked in Soviet diplomatic service until her death.

Kommunistische Arbeiter-Zeitung

[KAZ, Communist Workers Gazette] organ of KAPD published in Berlin; appeared semiweekly 1919-28, weekly 1928-33.

Kommunistischer Gewerkschafter

[Communist Trade Unionist] weekly newspaper for communist propaganda in trade unions and workers’ councils; founded 8 January 1921; edited by Fritz Heckert.

Kon, Feliks (1864-1941)

Socialist from 1883; a leader of Polish SP left wing; jailed and exiled in eastern Siberia 1884-1904; joined Bolshevik party 1918; member of pro-soviet Polish provisional government during war 1920; active in Comintern leadership 1922-35; died during evacuation of Moscow.

König, Arthur (1881-1945)

Factory worker; joined SPD 1904; member Spartacus League 1918; co-founder German CP; party chair in Essen 1920; active in Red Army in Ruhr district; represented party left wing in CC 1923; removed from leadership posts 1925; reportedly active in anti-Nazi resistance; shot by Nazis 1945.

Koren, Ludevit (1896-1958)

Founding member Czechoslovak CP 1921; leader of party in Bratislava 1922-26; 4WC delegate; expelled 1927; took part in attempt to found independent CP; later member of Slovak independent SP; died in U.S.

Korfanty, Wojciech (1873-1939)

Polish nationalist leader in Upper Silesia; served in German Reichstag from 1903; led rebellion May 1921 that helped induce Allies to set German-Polish border favourable to Poland.

Koritschoner, Franz (1892-1941)

Bank employee; joined Austrian SPD youth 1914, supporter of Zimmerwald Left during War; founding member of CP 1918; CC member and editor-in-chief of CP daily newspaper; delegate to Third World Congress and elected to ECCI 1921; moved to Moscow 1929; arrested 1937 during Stalin purges; handed over to Gestapo after Hitler-Stalin pact; executed at Auschwitz.

Kornilov, Lavr (1870-1918)

Russian general; army commander-in-chief under Kerensky; led unsuccessful rightist attempt to overthrow provisional government August 1917; commander White forces in Don region from late 1917; killed by Soviet shell April 1918.

Kostrzewa, Wera (Maria Koszutska) (1876-1939)

Teacher; joined Polish SP 1902; a leader of Polish Left SP; founding member of Polish CP 1918; member CC, with interruptions, 1918-29; 4WC delegate; ousted from leadership for opposition to Stalin’s ultraleft policies 1929; in USSR from 1930; arrested during Stalin purges and died in prison.

Kowalski, Wladislaw (Ślusarski) (1883-1937)

Member Polish SP from 1903; founding member Polish CP 1918; worked in Moscow from 1926; joined Soviet CP 1928; arrested during Stalin purges 1934; died in prison.


See Communist Party, Germany.

Krasin, Leonid Borisovich (1870-1926)

Russian social democrat from 1890; elected to RSDLP CC 1903; Bolshevik CC 1905; prominent role in 1905 revolution; became Soviet commissar for Trade and for Transport in 1919; Soviet ambassador to France 1924; Britain 1925.

Kreibich, Karel or Karl (1883-1966)

Social Democrat from 1902; supporter of Lenin’s stand against war 1914; organiser of revolutionary left in Sudetenland SP; member of Czechoslovak CP political bureau 1921-24, 1927-29; part of Comintern staff 1924-27 and 1929-33; moved to London 1938; worked with Beneš exile government during war; Czechoslovak ambassador to USSR 1950-52.

Kreibich, Karl (1883-1966)

Social Democrat from 1902; supporter of Lenin’s stand against War 1914; organiser of revolutionary left in Sudetenland SP; founded Sudeten German section of Czechoslovak CP and represented it at Third World Congress; member of Czechoslovak CP political bureau 1921-4, 1927-9; part of Comintern staff 1924-7 and 1929-33; moved to London 1938; worked with Beneš exile government during World War II; Czechoslovak ambassador to USSR 1950-2.

Królikowski, Stefan [Gliński] (1881-1937)

Member Polish Socialist Party [PPS] 1900-6, PPS-Left 1911-18; exiled to Siberia 1915-17; participated in October Revolution in Petrograd; returned to Warsaw and elected to Polish CP CC 1918; Third World Congress delegate; worked in Soviet Union from 1929; arrested and shot during Stalin purges.

Krupskaya, Nadezhda (1869-1939)

Joined Marxist movement in Russia 1890; co-founder RSDLP 1898; Bolshevik; collaborator and wife of Lenin; leader in Soviet educational administration; target of insults by Stalin 1922-3; briefly supported United Opposition led by Trotsky and Zinoviev 1926; ostracised due to efforts to defend victims of Stalin purges in 1930s.

Kucher, Joseph E.

Leader in early 1920s of a council of small independent unions in New York and New Jersey who had quit or been expelled from American Federation of Labour; member U.S. CP; advocated CP support for building militant unions outside AFL; chosen as delegate by CP to present this view to Fourth and Fifth Comintern Congresses.

Kudelli, Praskov’ia Frantsevna (1859-1944)

Member Russian Social Democracy from 1903; Bolshevik writer; often arrested under tsarism; co-editor Rabotnitsa (Woman Worker) 1914 and 1917-18.

Kuliscioff, Anna (1854-1925)

Joined revolutionary movement in Russia during 1870s; fled to Italy; founding member of Italian SP 1892; part of split that formed reformist PSU 1922; companion of Turati.

Kun, Béla (1886-1938 or 1939)

Hungarian journalist; joined SP 1903; joined Bolsheviks while war prisoner in Russia; organised Hungarian CP 1918; head of Hungarian soviet government March to July 1919; forced into exile; lived in USSR from 1920; supported ultraleft ‘theory of the offensive’; as ECCI emissary to Germany, helped instigate March Action 1921; Third World Congress delegate; ECCI member 1921-2, 1926-36; supported Stalin against left and right oppositions; arrested, tortured, and executed during Stalin purges.

Kuomintang (Guomindang)

Chinese bourgeois nationalist party formed under leadership of Sun Yat-sen 1912; led a government in Guangdong seeking national unification June 1921-April 1922 and from February 1923; collaborated with Communists 1923-27.

Kurella, Alfred (1895-1975)

Born in Germany; writer; joined Socialist Youth 1918; founding member CP; leader of Communist Youth International; based in Moscow from 1921; 4WC delegate; remained in USSR with some interruptions until 1954; thereafter held cultural posts in East Germany.

Kuskova, Yekaterina Dmitrievna (1869-1958)

Leading Russian liberal and member of Cadet Party; opponent of October Revolution; active in Public Committee for Famine Relief 1921, accused of anti-Soviet propaganda; deported from Russia 1922.

Kuusinen, Otto (1881-1964)

Member Finnish SP 1904; its chairman 1911-17; people’s commissar in soviet government of Finland 1918; based in Russia from 1918; a founder of Finnish CP 1918; attended all seven Comintern congresses; leading figure in Comintern ECCI until its dissolution 1943; president of Finno-Karelian Republic 1940-56; member of Soviet politburo at time of his death.


[Humanity] daily Paris newspaper of French SP and then CP; began publication 1904; 200,000 circulation in 1921.

L’Internationale du travail

[Revue internationale du travail] monthly publication published in Geneva by bureau of Amsterdam International; began 1921; published in English as International Labour Review.

l’Ordine nuovo

Turin-based revolutionary newspaper launched in May 1919 by Gramsci, Tasca, Terracini, and Togliatti; became voice of movement for workers’ councils; also name of left-wing current in Italian SP that joined in founding CP 1921.

La Bruyère: probably Jean de La Bruyère (1645-96)

French essayist and moralist.

La Vie ouvrière

[Workers’ Life] French revolutionary syndicalist publication founded by Pierre Monatte in 1909.

La Voix des femmes

[Women’s Voice] French feminist and socialist journal founded 1917; adopted Communist standpoint; edited by Madeleine Pelletier.

Labour Party

See British Labour Party; Australian Labor Party; Norwegian Labour Party; Belgian Workers Party.

Lafont, Ernest (1879-1946)

French lawyer and Freemason; as SP parliamentary deputy gave conditional support to national defence during War; joined French CP 1921; expelled from CP for opposition to Fourth World Congress decisions January 1923; helped found independent socialist group 1923; rejoined SP 1928; split from SP to the right 1933; government minister 1935-6.

Lagardelle, Hubert (1874-1958)

Joined predecessor of French SP 1893; director of le Mouvement socialiste 1899-1914; became revolutionary syndicalist; broke with socialist movement during War; joined fascist group 1926; minister of labour in pro-Nazi Vichy regime 1942-43; after Liberation, condemned to life imprisonment.

Laguesse, Paul (1893-1942)

Teacher; member of French SP; founding member of CP 1921; lost teaching post for antiwar activity 1922; supporter of Centre current; member of party executive 1922; responsible for international relations December 1922; no longer in party leadership from 1924; arrested and executed by German occupation authorities.

Landler, Jenő (1875-1928)

Lawyer and journalist; joined Hungarian SP 1904; became leader of railwaymen’s union; member of Hungarian soviet government and commander of its army 1919; emigrated 1919; led CP faction opposed to Béla Kun; delegate to Third through Fifth World Congresses; carried out assignments for ECCI in 1920s, died in France.


See Swabeck, Arne.

Lapčević, Dragiša (1867-1939)

Central leader of Serbian SDP from its founding 1903; as parliamentary deputy 1905-8 and 1912-19 made anti-war declarations against Balkan Wars and World War I; joined Yugoslav CP at its founding in 1919 but left December 1920; helped found Yugoslav SP 1922.

Laporte, Maurice (1901-87)

French metalworker, journalist; active in Socialist Youth from 1919; advocated its affiliation to Communist Youth International; general secretary of Socialist, then Communist youth 1920-3; delegate to Third and Fourth World Congresses; jailed for anti-militarist activity 1923; left Communist movement in mid-1920s; became prominent writer against communism and Soviet Union, including during Nazi occupation; after 1945 fled to Switzerland; sentenced in absentia to life imprisonment.

Larin, Yuri Aleksandrovich (1882-1932)

Joined RSDLP 1900, becoming Menshevik 1904; joined Bolshevik Party August 1917; worked in Soviet government and economic bodies after 1917; during 1920-2 deputy chairman of Supreme Council for Transportation, and member of state Planning Commission and its Presidium; appointed Soviet adviser on Jewish affairs 1925.

Larkin, James (1878-1947)

Born in Liverpool of Irish family; docker; dock union organiser from 1905; took up organising work in Ireland 1907; with James Connolly, formed Irish Labour Party 1912; led great wave of strikes in Dublin 1913-14; moved to U.S. 1914; supporter of Russian October revolution; jailed for Communist views 1920-23; returned to Ireland 1923 and led communist movement there in mid-1920s; elected to ECCI 1924; later rejoined Labour Party.

Lassalle, Ferdinand (1825-1864)

Participant in 1848-9 revolution in Germany; founder and first president of General German Workers Association 1863; campaigner for suffrage and workers’ rights; killed in duel; followers joined with Marxists in 1875 to form Socialist German Workers Party, predecessor of SPD.

Laufenberg, Heinrich (1872-1932)

Joined SPD 1904; a leader of left wing within SPD in Hamburg; elected chairman of workers’ and soldiers’ council there January 1919; a leader of National Bolshevism tendency; expelled from KPD 1920; joined KAPD but was expelled from it later that year; co-founder of Communist League; refused all contact with Nazis, unlike collaborator Wolffheim.

Laukki, Leo [Pivio] (1880-1938)

Joined workers’ movement during 1905-6 revolution in Russian Finland; moved to US 1907 and became part of Finnish Socialist Federation; became revolutionary syndicalist and joined IWW 1910; arrested 1918 and condemned to twenty years for espionage and conspiracy; member US CP 1921; out on bail, he fled to Soviet Russia; elected to Finnish CP CC 1921, representing it at Third World Congress; elected to ECCI 1921; remained on CC until 1925; subsequently university professor in Soviet Union; arrested and shot during Stalin purges.

Lauridan, Henri (1885-1963)

Municipal employee in Tourcoing (Nord); member of French Radical party; joined SP 1919; quickly became regional leader of SP; supported affiliation to Comintern; leader of revolutionary minority in regional CGT; 4WC delegate; expelled from CP for ‘suspicious relations’ with local police chief 1923; joined pro-fascist group 1926; supporter of Vichy during Nazi occupation; jailed after Liberation 1944-45; subsequently quit political activity.

Lausanne conference

Convened 20 November 1922 to resolve the crisis provoked by the victory of the Turkish independence movement.

Lavergne, Adrien (1896-1971)

Teacher, unionist; member of CP National Council 1921; leader of far-left current in Paris CP 1922; soon left CP but continued union activity; played prominent role in resistance to Nazi occupation; headed a teachers’ union 1947-56.

Law, Bonar (1858-1923)

British Conservative politician; prime minister October 1922 to May 1923; ministry was sustained in November 1922 elections; opposed French occupation of Ruhr January 1923.

Lazzari, Costantino (1857-1927)

Joined Italian workers’ movement 1883; a founding CC member of Italian SP 1892; SP political secretary 1912-19; supporter of Maximalist wing; attended Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences; imprisoned for anti-war propaganda February to November 1918; opposed Communist split at 1921 Livorno Congress; attended Third World Congress as SP representative; remained in SP after Serrati joined CP in 1924.

Le Chatelier, Alfred (1855-1929)

French colonial official; professor of Muslim sociology.

Le Peuple

[The People] founded 1848; became daily organ of Belgian Workers Party.

Le Populaire

[The People] Paris daily reflecting views of SP right wing; published 1918-37.

League for Defence of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

French association formed in 1898 to defend individual rights against injustice; also an arena for discussion among forces in the French Republican left.

League of Peace and Freedom

International pacifist and democratic organisation founded 1867; watchwords were ‘Universal brotherhood of peoples’ and ‘United States of Europe’.

Lebas, Jean (1878-1944)

Member of French SP led by Guesde 1896; mayor of Roubaix (Nord) 1912-40; parliamentary deputy 1919-28, 1932-42; opposed affiliation to Comintern; minister of government 1936-38; active in resistance to Nazi occupation 1940; arrested 1941; died in concentration camp.

Leckie, Jack V.

Chair of Scottish Communist Labour Party 1920; helped lead it into fusion that created British CP 1921; member 4WC Presidium; CP representative in Germany 1923-25; active in Workers’ International Relief through 1929.

Ledebour, Georg (1850-1947)

Teacher, journalist; joined SPD 1891; in SPD’s left wing before 1914; opposed social chauvinism; co-chair of USPD 1919; opposed affiliation to Comintern 1920; refused to rejoin SPD 1922; led a small socialist group through 1920s; member of anti-Stalinist Socialist Workers Party 1931; fled to Switzerland 1933; continued anti-Nazi and socialist activity until death.

Leder, Z

See Feinstein, Wladyslaw.

Lefebvre, Raymond (1891-1920)

War veteran wounded at Verdun; joined SP 1916 and drawn to its left wing; founded Republican Association of Veterans; delegate of Committee for the Third International to Second World Congress; on his return trip, he and two others died at sea.

Left Bloc

See Bloc des gauches.

Left Social Democratic Party of Sweden

See Communist Party, Sweden.

Left Socialist Party [Levice, Czechoslovakia]

A reference to SDP after Marxist Left Faction (organised December 1919) won leadership of it in September 1920; became CP May 1921.

Left Socialist Party of Belgium

A reference to left-wing current expelled from Belgian Workers Party early 1921, led by Joseph Jacquemotte; fused with CP September 1921.

Left Socialist Revolutionary Party [Russia]

Split from Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party 1917; participated in October Revolution and Soviet government, but broke with it July 1918 and launched uprising; minority of party eventually joined Russian CP.

Legien, Carl (1861-1920)

Joined SPD 1885; chairman of lathe operators’ union 1887 and of confederation of pro-socialist unions 1890; member of Reichstag from 1893; supported government war effort 1914-18 and SPD right-wing majority; as chairman of main German union federation, called general strike that defeated Kapp Putsch 1920.

Leiciague, Lucie (1879-1962)

Joined French SP before War; member of Paris region SP executive 1920; supported affiliation to Comintern; member CP executive 1921-24; supported Centre current; 4WC delegate; broke with CP 1928; rejoined SP; continued to write for Socialist press after World War 2.

Leipart, Theodor (1867-1947)

vice president of German Union of Woodworkers 1893-1908 and its president 1908-19; president of Federation of German Trade Unions [ADGB] 1921-33; vice president of Amsterdam International 1922-3; inactive during World War II; joined SED 1946.

Lékai, Jànos (1895-1925)

Union of Young Workers chairman during Hungarian soviet republic 1919; member Hungarian CP; emigrated to Vienna and worked on staff of CYI’s journal Jugend-Internationale; member CYI executive committee 1919-22; delegate to Second and Third World Congresses from CYI; moved to US 1922 and became active in Hungarian Federation of US CP as John Lassen.

Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (1870-1924)

Became active in Russian social democratic movement 1892-3; founded Iskra 1900; central leader of Bolsheviks from 1903; called for new International 1914; organised Zimmerwald Left to fight for this goal 1915-17; leader of October Revolution; chair of Soviet government 1917-24; founder and leader of Comintern, attending its first four congresses.

Lepetit, Jules (1889-1920)

French anarcho-syndicalist; jailed 1917-19; founding member Committee of Syndicalist Defence; observer at Second World Congress; died at sea while returning.

Lespagnol, Robert (1900-1974)

Journalist; activist in Paris CP in early 1920s; supported Renoult current; 4WC delegate; elected to CP executive January 1923; left CP during rise of Stalinism.

Level, Charles (1880-1963)

Miner; socialist and union activist in Lens (Pas-de-Calais), France; partisan of affiliation to Comintern; supporter of Renoult tendency in French CP 1922; head of CGTU in Pas-de-Calais 1924-1930; jailed by Vichy authorities 1940-44; local activist of CP until withdrawal from political activity 1947.

Levi, Paul (1883-1930)

Joined SPD 1909; collaborator of Rosa Luxemburg; joined Spartacus group during War; co-founder of German CP 1918; chair of CP 1919-21; attended Italian SP Livorno Congress 1921 and opposed Comintern intervention there; led struggle against ultraleftism and for unification with revolutionary majority in USPD; resigned as CP chair February 1921; expelled from CP as result of his public denunciation of March Action and ‘strategy of offensive’; founded Communist Working Group [KAG], which joined USPD and was part of SPD-USPD fusion 1922; a leader of SPD left wing until his death.

Liebknecht, Karl (1871-1919)

Joined German SPD 1900; first president of Socialist Youth International 1907-10; first member of German Reichstag to vote against war credits December 1914; co-founder of Spartacus current; imprisoned for anti-war propaganda 1916; freed by 1918 revolution; a founding leader of German CP December 1918; murdered by rightist officers during Berlin workers’ uprising January 1919.

Liebknecht, Wilhelm (1826-1900)

Participant in 1848 revolution in Germany; collaborator of Marx and Engels; co-founder of German Social Democracy 1869 and, with Bebel, leader of SPD until his death; chief editor of Vorwärts 1876-8, 1891-1900.

Likov, Aleksandr (1886-1954)

Born in Lom, Bulgaria; studied law in Geneva; secretary of Bulgarian Communist youth 1920-21; editor of Mladezh (Youth); parliamentary deputy 1921-23; 4WC delegate; expelled from Bulgarian CP after September uprising 1923; lived in exile 1923-40; worked in foreign affairs ministry from 1944.

Lindhagen, Carl (1860-1946)

Mayor of Stockholm 1903-30; joined SPD 1909; founding member 1917 of Left Social Democratic Party, which became CP; expelled 1921 for opposing decisions of Second World Congress; rejoined Social Democrats 1923.


A current in the RSDLP after 1906 that favoured ‘liquidating’ the habits of the underground party and instituting a new party regime that could take advantage of legal openings that its supporters believed to be emerging under tsarism; term was also applied in the U.S. in 1922 to those who favoured that the CP function legally.

Little Entente

Alliance of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Romania concluded in 1920-21.

Liu Renjing (Liu Jen-Ching; Lin Yen-Chin) (1899-1987)

Represented Beijing group at Chinese CP founding congress 1921; general secretary of Socialist Youth League; 4WC delegate; joined Left Opposition led by Trotsky in late 1920s; visited Trotsky in Turkey 1929; helped organise Trotskyist group in China; arrested 1934; accepted Maoism after 1949.


Congress of the Italian Socialist Party, held 15-21 January 1921, at which majority refused to ratify Twenty-One Conditions for Comintern membership; minority then withdrew and founded Italian CP.

Livorno Congress

Italian Socialist Party [PSI] gathering held 15-21 January 1921; Unitary Communists [Centre] led by Serrati received 92,028 votes; Communist Faction [Left] led by Bordiga, 58,173; Socialist Concentration [Right] led by Turati, 14,695; Left walked out and formed Communist Party of Italy, which was recognised as section of Comintern.

Lloyd George, David (1863-1945)

British prime minister 1916-22; negotiated end of British war in Ireland 1921; favoured armed resistance to Turkey in Chanak Crisis 1922.

London, Jack (1876-1916)

Labourer, writer; joined socialist movement 1896; won fame as novelist; wrote The Iron Heel, a vision of resistance to a capitalist tyranny, 1906.

London, Meyer (1871-1926)

Born in Lithuania; moved to U.S. 1891; lawyer; founding member U.S. SP 1901; a leader of needle trades unions; elected for SP to U.S. congress 1914-18 and 1920-22; opposed U.S. entry into War but subsequently supported war effort; opponent of Zionism.

Longuet, Jean (1876-1938)

Joined French socialist movement 1890s; leader of centrists in SP during and after War; opposed affiliation to Comintern; remained with dissident SP after 1920 split; parliamentary deputy 1914-19; 1932-6; leading figure in Two-and-a-Half International; Karl Marx’s grandson.

López y López, José

Leader of antiwar SP youth in Madrid during War; took part in early discussions among Comintern supporters; stayed in SP when initial CP formed 1920; general secretary of the Spanish federation of socialist youth; subsequently joined Comintern and was active in Communist Youth International 1921.

L'Ordine nuovo [New order]

Italian Communist newspaper in Turin founded 1919; led by Gramsci, Tasca, Terracini, and Togliatti; published until 1925.

Loriot, Fernand (1870-1932)

Teacher; joined French SP 1901; treasurer of teachers’ union 1912; a leader of internationalist forces in France during War; secretary of Committee for the Third International in France; became part of CP at Tours Congress; jailed 1920-1; elected CP international secretary January 1921; a vice chairman of Presidium of Third World Congress; withdrew from leadership 1922; opposed ‘Bolshevisation’ 1925-6; quit party 1926; later collaborated with Left Opposition led by Trotsky.

Loucheur Louis (1872-1931)

French politician; owner of arms-making company; minister of armaments 1917-18; parliamentary deputy 1919-31; negotiated with Rathenau on reparations 1921; held various ministerial posts until his death.

Louis, Paul (1872-1955)

French socialist, author and journalist; joined socialist movement 1898; became member of SP national leadership prior to War; member CP following 1920 Tours Congress, elected to its directing committee; criticised as bourgeois journalist, he was expelled from CP January 1923; joined Socialist Communist Union led by Frossard, becoming its general secretary; in 1930 it fused into United Proletarian Party [PUP], and then SP in 1936; abandoned political activity during World War II.

L'Ouvrier communiste

[The Communist Worker] bimonthly newspaper of Belgian CP; founded 1 March 1920.

Louzon, Robert (1882-1976)

Engineer; revolutionary syndicalist, then Communist; jailed for anti-colonial activity in Tunisia 1922; member executive of CGTU; quit CP 1924; rejoined Monatte and syndicalists; jailed by French authorities for antiwar views 1940-41; continued syndicalist and anti-colonial journalism until death.

Lozovsky, Solomon Abramovich (1878-1952)

Joined RSDLP 1901; in exile 1909-17; active in French revolutionary labour movement during War; returned to Russia and joined Bolsheviks 1917; general secretary of RILU 1921-37; 4WC delegate; deputy minister of foreign affairs 1939-45; arrested during repression of Jewish writers 1949; shot in prison.

Lozovsky, Solomon Abramovich (1878-1952)

Joined RSDLP 1901; lived in Geneva and Paris 1909-17; active in French revolutionary labour movement during War; returned to Russia and joined Bolsheviks 1917; became secretary of All-Russian Union of Railway Workers 1918; general secretary of RILU 1921-37; Third World Congress delegate; deputy minister of foreign affairs 1939-45; arrested during repression of Jewish writers 1949; shot in prison.

Lubersac, Guy Louis Jean, Marquis de (1878-1932)

French senator; president of Federation of Cooperative Societies of French Liberated Regions; organised reconstruction work in Soissons; represented French proprietors who had suffered war damage in negotiations with Hugo Stinnes 1922.

Ludendorff, Erich (1865-1937)

German general; shaped German military policy in latter years of War; subsequently a leader of reactionary and fascist political movements; Nazi member of Reichstag 1924-8.

Lukàcs, György (1885-1971)

Joined Hungarian CP 1918; commissar for education and culture in Hungarian soviet republic 1919; emigrated after its defeat; member of CP faction opposed to Béla Kun; Third World Congress delegate; lived in Moscow for most of 1930-45 period; returned to Budapest 1945 and joined Hungarian Academy of Sciences; participated in 1956 revolution, becoming minister of culture in Imre Nagy government; expelled from CP and briefly deported; readmitted to party 1967; author of History and Class Consciousness.

Lunacharsky, Anatoly Vasilievich (1875-1933)

Joined Russian social-democratic movement in early 1890s; became Bolshevik after 1903; broke with Bolsheviks with Vperyod group after 1905 revolution; rejoined 1917; people’s commissar of education 1917-29; then chairman of Academic Committee under Central Executive Committee of USSR.

Lüttwitz, Walther von (1859-1942)

German baron and general; appointed by Social Democrats to lead crushing of workers’ uprising in Berlin 1919; with Kapp, led attempted putsch against German republic 1920.

Luxemburg, Rosa (1871-1919)

Born in Poland; co-founder of SDKPiL 1893; later lived in Germany; led SPD left wing against revisionist right and, after 1910, against ‘Marxist Centre’ led by Kautsky; Marxist theorist and author of The Accumulation of Capital 1913; leader of Spartacus current during War; imprisoned 1916-18; founding leader of German CP December 1918; arrested and murdered during workers’ uprising in Berlin January 1919.

Macavei, Mihail (1882-1965)

Born in Romania; lawyer; member CP 1921; elected ECCI Alternate 1922; continued political activity in 1930s; Romanian ambassador to Britain 1949.

MacDonald, Jack (1888-1941)

Die-maker; prominent spokesperson for Toronto unions and SDP of Canada in postwar labour upsurge; vice-president of Independent Labor Party 1919; chairman of Canadian CP 1921-23 and national secretary 1923-29; 4WC delegate; expelled for refusing to condemn Right Opposition 1931; joined International Left Opposition in Canada 1932.

MacDonald, Ramsey (1866-1937)

Leader of British Labour Party 1911-14 and 1922-31; opposed British entry into War 1914; opposed October Revolution; member of Second International executive committee; prime minister 1924 and 1929-35; split from Labour Party 1931.

MacManus, Arthur (1892-1927)

Metalworker; member of Socialist Labour Party in Britain; internationalist during War; leader of British Shop Stewards movement; member CC of British CP from its foundation 1920; party chairman 1920-22; member Comintern ECCI 1922-26; imprisoned for sedition 1925; died during visit to USSR and buried in Red Square.

Maeterlinck, Maurice (1862-1949)

Belgian symbolist poet, playwright, and essayist.

Maffi, Fabrizio (1868-1955)

Joined Italian socialist movement around 1890; SP parliamentary deputy from 1913; close to Maximalist current; remained in SP following 1921 Livorno split; member of PSI delegation to Third and Fourth World Congresses; supported SP’s pro-Comintern current; joined CP 1924; close collaborator of Gramsci 1924-6; jailed 1926-8; active again in CP after fall of Fascism.

Makhno, Nestor (1889-1934)

Ukrainian anarchist; led peasant army in Russian civil war from 1918; allied with Soviets 1919-20; came into conflict with them and was defeated 1920; emigrated 1921.


See Tan Malaka

Malthus, Thomas (1766-1834)

English economist and demographer; known for theory that human population growth will outstrip food supply.

Malzahn, Heinrich (1884-1957)

Mechanic; active in metalworkers union; joined SPD 1906, USPD 1917; member of revolutionary shop stewards during War; member Executive of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils November 1918; chairman of Berlin Committee of Factory Councils; joined CP in KPD-USPD fusion 1920; opposed March Action but organised strike in Ruhr; supported KPD opposition to March Action, representing it at Third World Congress; continued to voice public opposition to KPD policy; expelled January 1922 and joined KAG; rejoined CP 1923-4; rejoined SPD 1930; imprisoned by Nazis 1940; joined East German SED 1946.

Manchester School

A school of economic thought in nineteenth-century Britain that upheld free trade, free competition, and laissez-faire policies.

Mann, Tom (1856-1941)

Toolmaker; joined British Social Democratic Federation 1884; first president of Dockers Union after 1889; founding member and secretary of Independent Labour Party from 1894; lived in Australia and continued trade union work 1901-10; joined British SP 1917; secretary of Amalgamated Engineering Union 1919-21; founding member of CP 1920; Third World Congress delegate; chairman National Minority Movement 1924-9; remained in CP until his death.

Manner, Kullervo (1880-1939)

Joined Finnish SP 1905; chairman of party 1917-18; headed Finnish Soviet government 1918; after its fall, lived in Russia; general secretary Finnish CP 1918-29; 4WC delegate; jailed as Trotskyist 1935; died in prison, as did his wife, Hanna Malm.

Manner, Kullervo (1880-1939)

Joined Finnish SP 1905; chairman of party 1917-18; headed Finnish soviet government 1918; after its fall, lived in Russia; general secretary Finnish CP 1918-29; arrested as Trotskyist 1935; died in prison.

Mannerheim, Carl Gustaf (1867-1951)

Finnish general and conservative politician; led White forces in crushing Bolshevik-led revolution in 1918; Finnish head of state 1918-19 and 1944-46.

Manuilsky, Dmitry (1883-1959)

Member RSDLP 1903; emigrated 1907; co-editor with Trotsky of Nashe Slovo in Paris during War; joined Bolsheviks 1917; participant in Russian October revolution 1917; member of Ukrainian Soviet government 1920-22; member Presidium ECCI from 1924 and its secretary from 1928 to Comintern dissolution 1943; theorist of Stalinism; continued to hold high posts in Ukraine until 1953.

Manuilsky, Dmitry Zakharovich (1883-1959)

Member RSDLP 1903; emigrated 1907; co-editor with Trotsky of Nashe Slovo in Paris during War; joined Bolsheviks with Mezhrayontsi 1917; participant in October Revolution; member of Ukrainian soviet government 1920-2; delegate to Third World Congress from Ukrainian CP; member Presidium ECCI from 1924 and its secretary from 1928 until Comintern dissolution 1943; ideologist of Stalinism; continued to hold high posts in Ukraine through 1953.

Marabini, Andrea (b. 1892)

Mechanic; joined Italian Socialist youth 1908, SP 1911; helped organise Zimmerwald conference 1915; member CP 1921; led local united front against Fascism in Imola 1921-22; member 4WC Presidium; in exile from 1924; active in Comintern apparatus from 1929; returned to Italy 1945; CP deputy and senator after 1945.

Marat, Jean-Paul (1743-93)

Radical Jacobin leader during French Revolution.

March Action

A general strike called by the VKPD on 24 March 1921 in an unsuccessful attempt to broaden struggles against police occupation of workers’ strongholds in Central Germany; the term is also sometimes used to refer to the cycle of VKPD action initiatives from 16 March to the end of the month.

March Action

A succession of workers’ actions in Germany 16-30 March 1921 protesting police occupation of workers’ strongholds in central Germany; the KPD tried unsuccessfully to broaden it into a national anti-government general strike.

March Revolution

Another term for the revolution that took place in Russia 23-27 February 1917, by the calendar then used in Russia, or 8-12 March, by the calendar used in most other countries.

Marchlewski, Julian (Karski) (1866-1925)

Joined Polish Marxist group about 1888; founding member of Russian and Polish Social Democracy; active in SPD left wing before War; co-founder of Spartacus group during War; jailed 1916-18; headed Polish provisional revolutionary government during Polish-Soviet war 1920; member 4WC Presidium; chair of International Red Aid 1923-25.

Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)

Born in Jamaica; founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association in 1914 to unite all Blacks in an international freedom struggle; immigrated to U.S. 1916; FBI sought his conviction and deportation from 1919; jailed 1925; deported from U.S. 1927.

Mariàtegui, José Carlos (1894-1930)

Peruvian journalist, socialist from 1918; lived in Italy 1920-22; supporter of national-democratic APRA 1923-28; co-founder of SP, later renamed CP, 1928; its general secretary 1929; defended Trotsky against Stalinist slanders; partisan of rights of indigenous population and their contribution to Peruvian socialism.

Marković, Sima (1888-1939)

Joined Serbian SDP 1907 and became member of anarcho-syndicalist current within it; co-secretary of Yugoslav CP 1919 and its general secretary 1920-8; Third World Congress delegate; elected to ECCI 1924; expelled 1929; went to Soviet Union 1934 after being jailed in Yugoslavia; readmitted to CP 1935; arrested and executed during Stalin purges.

Marrane, Georges (1888-1976)

Mechanic; joined SP 1916; secretary of the CP’s Seine federation; supporter of Centre current; member Political Bureau October 1922; stayed in CP under Stalin; active in resistance to Nazi occupation; minister 1947; mayor of Ivry-sur-Seine 1925-40 and 1945-65.


See Bedacht, Max.

Martens, Ludwig (1875-1948)

Born to German family in Ukraine; joined Marxist movement about 1893; jailed 1896; deported 1899; subsequently lived in Britain and U.S.; returned to Russia with Trotsky 1917; represented Soviet government in U.S. 1919-21; founded society for technical aid to Soviet Russia; deported to Russia 1921; member of council on national economy; headed diesel research institute 1926-36; retired 1941.

Martov, Julius (1873-1923)

Joined Russian social-democratic movement early 1890s; leader of Mensheviks from 1903; pacifist during War; in left wing of Mensheviks during 1917 revolution; opponent of October Revolution; left Russia 1920; prominent member of Two-and-a-Half International.

Marx, Karl (1818-83)

Co-founder with Engels of modern communist workers’ movement; leader of Communist League 1847-52; co-author of Communist Manifesto; editor of Neue Rheinische Zeitung in 1848-49 German revolution; central leader of International Working Men’s Association (First International) 1864-76; published first volume of Capital 1867; defender of 1871 Paris Commune.

Marxist Left Wing of the Czech Socialists

See Left Socialist Party [Levice, Czechoslovakia].


See Štukelj, Ciril.

Masaryk, Tomàš (1850-1937)

Czech nationalist writer; lead struggle to found Czechoslovak state; Czechoslovak president 1918-35.

Maslow, Arkadi (1891-1941)

Emigrated to Germany from Russia as child; joined German CP 1919; party leader in Berlin, elected to CC November 1920; a leader of party’s extreme left wing from 1921; Third World Congress delegate; co-leader of party with Ruth Fischer 1924-6; denounced as ultraleft; expelled 1926; a founder of Leninbund; emigrated 1933.


Current led by Serrati in the Italian SP that stressed importance of ‘maximum’ demands in party program relating to achievement of socialism; in 1921-22 favourable to Comintern but unwilling to apply Twenty-One Conditions.

Mayenburg, Herbert von (1883-1954)

Joined SPD 1906; German army 1914-18; USPD member from 1917, becoming regional party secretary; participated in 1920 fusion with KPD; editor of Rostok CP newspaper 1920-2; delegate to Third World Congress; later left KPD, demoralised by inner-party conflicts; moved to Hungary 1941 and West Germany 1947.

Mayoux, François (1882-1967)

Teacher, unionist; member French SP 1905-19; jailed for antiwar activity 1918-19; founding member of CP 1921; defended syndicalist views; expelled from CP 1922 and from CGTU 1929; wrote for anarchist publications into 1950s.

Mayoux, Marie (1878-1969)

Teacher, unionist; member French SP 1905-19; organised antiwar activity in Tours 1915; briefly jailed for antiwar activity 1918; founding member of CP 1921; defended syndicalist views; expelled from CP 1922 and from CGTU 1929; wrote for anarchist publications into 1950s.

Mazzoni, Nino (1874-1954)

Joined Italian SP around 1895; worked for agricultural workers union; opposed Italy’s entry into War; joined reformist faction of PSI led by Turati 1919; member executive council of CGL 1921; joined Unitary Socialist Party [PSU] 1922; social democratic deputy and senator after World War II.

McKay, Claude (1890-1948)

Jamaican poet and writer; moved to U.S. 1912; wrote for Socialist press; an inspirer of Harlem Renaissance generation of Black writers; co-founder of African Blood Brotherhood, which merged into CP; 4WC delegate; lived mostly in Europe in 1920s; attacked by CP after return to U.S. 1934; remained socialist and advocate of Black liberation; in final years close to Catholic Worker movement.

Mehring, Franz (1846-1919)

Became German radical democrat in 1870s, sympathetic to Lassalleanism; won to Marxism and joined SPD 1891; chief editor of Leipziger Volkszeitung 1902-7; a leading contributor to Die Neue Zeit; author of History of German Social-Democracy and biography of Marx; close collaborator of Rosa Luxemburg from 1912; founding member of Spartacus current 1914-15, and CP 1918.

Melnichansky, Grigory Natanovich (1886-1937)

Member RSDLP 1902; member of Moscow military revolutionary committee in October 1917 revolution; member Soviet Council of Labour and Defence 1918-20; subsequently worked in trade unions and on economic issues; arrested during Stalin purges; died in prison.


originally the minority (‘Mensheviki’) of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party at its 1903 congress; opposed Russian October 1917 revolution; subsequently an opposition force to Soviet government.

Menzhinskaia, Liudmila (1878-1933)

Member RSDLP from 1904; member editorial board of Rabotnitsa (Woman Worker) 1914; after October revolution, collaborator of Krupskaya in leadership of Soviet education.

Merges, August (1870-1945)

Leader of Brunswick Workers’ and Soldiers’ council 1918-19; delegated to represent KAPD at Comintern Second Congress but left as congress opened; joined KPD 1921; jailed several times by Nazis; died shortly after release from prison.

Méric, Victor (1876-1933)

Initially anarchist; anti-militarist; joined French SP 1906; member of Committee for Third International; member of French CP executive 1921; led right-wing current hostile to Comintern discipline and united front; rejected 4WC decisions; expelled 1923; subsequently wrote for Frossard’s paper, then for his own pacifist publication.

Merino-Gracia, Ramón [b. 1894)

Schoolteacher; vice-president of Spanish Federation of Socialist Youth, expelled from Spanish SP April 1920; first general secretary of CP of Spain [PCE]; delegate to Second and Third World Congresses; elected to ECCI 1921; arrested 1924 for Communist activities; made deal with Spanish regime in order to gain freedom; later aligned with fascist-led trade unions under Franco regime.

Merkulov, Spiridon Dionisevich (1870-1957)

Tsarist government official in Vladivostok; supported Whites in civil war in Russian Far East; chaired anti-Soviet regime in Priamur region 1921-22; was ousted by White generals and went into exile 1922; died in U.S.

Merrheim, Alphonse (1871-1925)

French syndicalist; leader of metalworkers union; led internationalist current in CGT during War; supported anti-war Zimmerwald movement until 1917; then allied with reformist forces in CGT; forced by illness to withdraw from union activity 1923.

Mertens, Corneille (1879-1951)

Secretary of Belgian Federation of Labour from 1911; vice president of Amsterdam Federation 1919; president of International Labour Conference 1924 and 1936.

Meshcheriakov, Nikolai Leonidovich (1865-1942)

Joined People’s Will 1885; became Marxist 1894 after emigrating to Belgium; active in Russian social-democratic movement from 1901; Bolshevik leader in Moscow; exiled to Siberia 1906-17; from 1918 to 1924 a member of Pravda editorial board and of board of Tsentrosoiuz [Central Union of Consumers’ Cooperatives]; reported on cooperative movement to Third World Congress; organisational secretary of Peasants International [Krestintern] 1924-7; subsequently chairman of state publishing house [Gosizdat].

Meshcheriakov, V.N. (1885-1946)

Member RSDLP from 1905; returned from exile and took part in Russian October revolution 1917; a leader of commissariat of agriculture 1918, education 1922-28, and foreign affairs 1930-36.

Mesnil, Jacques (1872-1940)

Member of Belgian Workers Party who became anarchist in 1890s; lived in Italy 1899-1914, then moving to France; became left-wing socialist 1918 and founding member of CP 1920; wrote for L’Humanité; expelled from CP 1924; later collaborated with left syndicalists.

Metternich, Klemens Wenzel von (1773-1859)

Austrian minister of foreign affairs 1809-48; notorious for use of repression and military suppression against liberal and nationalist movements; forced from office by 1848 revolution.

Meyer, Ernst (1887-1930)

Statistician, journalist; joined SPD 1908; leader of Spartacus League during War; founding member of CP 1918; member of its CC 1918-23 and 1926-29; party chair 1921-22; 4WC delegate; broke with Brandler to lead centre tendency of ‘conciliators’ 1924-29; removed from central leadership by Left majority 1924; reintegrated 1926; removed again for opposing Comintern’s ultraleft line 1929.

Meyer, Fritz

German metal worker; member of Spartacus group during war; left CP with KAPD split 1919; one of its delegates to Third World Congress 1921.

Meyer, Haakon (1896-1989)

A leader of Norwegian Labour Party and trade union movement; 4WC delegate representing Labour Party majority 1922; prominent spokesperson for socialism between wars; favoured cooperation with Nazi occupiers 1940-45; jailed 1946-49; emigrated to Sweden.

Meyer, Léon (1868-1948)

French politician; mayor of Le Havre 1919-36; cultivated support from workers but opposed SP and CP; voted full powers to Pétain 1940, whose anti-Jewish laws deprived him of his posts and led to deportation to Nazi concentration camp 1944-45.


See Warszawski, Adolf.


See Warszawski, Adolf.

Michelis, Giuseppe de (1875-1951)

Italian professor and ambassador of king of Italy; Italian representative to governing board of International Labour Organisation 1921-37 and was its chairman 1934-5.

Mieves, Peter (1897-1939)

Joined KPD 1919, becoming a leader in Middle Rhine district; a leader of German railway union; delegate to Third World Congress; expelled from KPD 1926, accused of being police informer; active in antifascist activities, he reapplied for membership 1932; imprisoned by Nazis 1933-4; died of cancer.

Milkić, Ilija (1882-1968)

Salesman; founding member of Serbian SDP 1903; elected to secretariat of Serbian Central Trade Union 1905; lived in France and Switzerland during war; attended Kienthal Conference as supporter of Zimmerwald Left 1916; supported October Revolution and moved to Soviet Russia 1919; joined Yugoslav Communist group in Russia; attended first three Comintern congresses; moved to Vienna 1922; returned to Yugoslavia 1926 and ceased political activity.

Millerand, Alexandre (1859-1943)

Initially a leader of French SP; took ministerial post in bourgeois cabinet 1899 and then moved to right of bourgeois political spectrum; French premier 1920; president 1920-24.

Milner, Alfred (1854-1925)

British colonial administrator, politician; headed commission of inquiry into status of Egypt 1919-20; recommended its independence subject to treaty of alliance; retired 1921.

Milyukov, Pavel (1859-1943)

Russian politician and historian; leader of Cadet party under tsar; as foreign minister under Provisional Government, favoured continuation of war March to May 1917; advised Whites in civil war, then emigrated.

Milyukov, Pavel Nikolaevich (1859-1943)

Russian liberal politician and historian; leader of Cadet party under tsar; as foreign minister under Provisional Government, favoured continuation of War March to May 1917; political adviser to Whites in civil war, then emigrated.

Minor, Robert [Ballister] (1884-1952)

Political cartoonist; joined American SP 1907; moved toward anarcho-syndicalism by 1912; went to Soviet Russia 1918 and was won to communism; joined US CP 1920; Third World Congress delegate; elected to CC 1922; editor of Daily Worker; remained a leader of CP until his death.

Misiano, Francesco (1884-1936)

Joined Italian SP 1907; active in railway union; internationalist during War; met Lenin during Swiss exile 1916; jailed in Berlin for work with Spartacists 1919; worked with Bordiga to create CP in Italy; member of CP executive 1921; forced again into exile November 1921; leader of International Workers’ Aid 1922-36; accused of Trotskyism 1935-36; died in Moscow.

Mitchell, John (1870-1919)

American coal miner; member Knights of Labor 1885-90; founding member United Mine Workers of America 1890; served as its president 1898-1908; co-founder National Civic Federation to promote labour-employer collaboration 1900; published book Organized Labor 1903; withdrew from activity in labour movement 1913; chair of State Industrial Commission 1915-19.

Modigliani, Giuseppe (1872-1947)

Joined Italian SP 1894; organised national federation of glass workers; parliamentary deputy 1913-26; attended Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences 1915-16; opposed formation of CP 1921; joined reformist Unitary Socialist Party [PSU] 1922; a leader of social democrats until death.

Monatte, Pierre (1881-1960)

French revolutionary syndicalist; worked with Trotsky in internationalist opposition to War; joined CP 1923; expelled for opposing anti-Trotsky campaign 1924; active in resistance to Nazi occupation; editor of syndicalist La Révolution prolétarienne until death.

Monatte, Pierre (1881-1960)

French revolutionary syndicalist; member of CGT directing committee 1904; founded La Vie ouvrière 1909; worked with Trotsky in internationalist opposition to War; won to communism 1919 and became a secretary of Committee for the Third International; imprisoned nine months 1920; joined CP 1923; expelled for opposing anti-Trotsky campaign 1924; founder and editor of La Révolution prolétarienne 1925-39 and 1945-7; active in resistance to Nazi occupation.

Monmousseau, Gaston (1883-1960)

Railway worker; revolutionary syndicalist; general secretary CGTU 1922-32; joined CP 1925; jailed five times; active in resistance to Nazi occupation; supported Stalin course until death.


See Knight, Joseph R.

Morgenthau, Henry (1856-1946)

U.S. capitalist, diplomat; ambassador to Ottoman Turkey 1913-16; took part as Mideast expert in Paris Peace Conference 1919; active in relief efforts for Middle East and Greece early 1920s.

Morison, Theodore (1863-1936)

British colonial official and officer; serving mainly in India, including in Muslim education; wrote extensively on British rule in India.


Daily organ of Third World Congress published in English, German, and French, 25 May to 14 July 1921.

Mot Dag (Toward Dawn)

Publication of Norwegian Labour Party members that raised criticisms of party and Comintern policies.

Motte, Eugene (1860-1932)

French capitalist; employed five thousand workers in textile mills of Roubaix; defeated Jules Guesde, longtime deputy for Roubaix, in parliamentary elections 1898; mayor of Roubaix 1902-12.


Town in Turkey on south shore of Sea of Marmara where British and Turkish representatives signed an agreement, on 11 October 1922, permitting Turkey to peacefully reoccupy the Straits region and Constantinople.

Müller, Hermann (1876-1931)

Joined SPD 1893; member party executive committee 1906-31; chauvinist position during War; SPD co-chairman 1919; as German foreign minister in 1919-20 was one of German signatories to Versailles Treaty; chancellor, 1920, 1928-30.

Müller, Richard (1880-1943)

Joined SPD 1906 and USPD 1917; leader of metalworkers union in Berlin; organised revolutionary stewards during War; president of executive committee of workers’ and soldiers’ councils during November 1918 revolution; joined CP in KPD-USPD fusion 1920; member of CC; supported Levi 1921; left KPD 1922 and joined KAG; later withdrew from political activity.

Muna, Alois (1886-1943)

Joined Czech SDP 1903; a leader of Czech Communist group formed among prisoners of war in Russia; leader of Czechoslovak CP in Kladno from 1919; arrested for Communist activities 1921 and elected honorary president of Third World Congress; alternate member ECCI 1922; full member 1924; expelled as ‘rightist’ 1929; subsequently led ‘Leninist Opposition’.

Münnich, Ferenc (1886-1967)

Hungarian prisoner in Russia 1915-18; commander in Hungarian red army 1919; subsequently in CP exile leadership in Vienna; carried out Comintern assignments, including in Germany March 1921; based in Russia 1922-45; fought in International Brigades in Spain 1936-9 and in Soviet Red Army 1941-5; held high government posts in Hungary from 1945, including president 1958-61.

Münzenberg, Willi (1889-1940)

Factory worker; joined Socialist Youth of Germany 1906 and (from 1910) Switzerland; secretary of left-wing Socialist Youth International 1915-19; member of Zimmerwald Left during War; founding member German CP 1918; secretary of Communist Youth International 1919-21; Third World Congress delegate; leader of International Workers Aid and of vast Communist cultural enterprise from 1921; opposed Stalin ultraleft course 1932; refused to go to USSR during Stalin purges; expelled from CP 1937; organised anti-Stalinist communists in France 1939; victim of political assassination, with probable Stalinist involvement.

Murphy, John Thomas (1888-1966)

Metalworker; leader of British shop stewards’ movement during war; member Socialist Labour Party 1917; member of British CP 1920 and its CC 1921; 4WC delegate; jailed 1925-26; CP representative in Moscow 1926-27; supported Stalin course in Comintern but turned against its ultraleftism 1931; expelled from CP 1932; joined Labour Party; secretary of Socialist League 1934-36; continued to write on socialism into 1950s.

Mussolini, Benito (1883-1945)

Initially socialist; editor of SP’s Avanti 1912; switched to chauvinist, pro-war position and was expelled from SP 1915; founded Fascist movement 1919; organised Fascist war against workers’ movement; prime minister from October 31, 1922; became Europe’s first Fascist dictator; executed by resistance forces.

Mustafa Kemal Pasha (Atatürk) (1881-1938)

Turkish general; led independence struggle 1918-23; founder of Turkish republic and its president, 1923-38.

Mustafa Subhi (Suphi) (1886-1921)

Member Turkish socialist group from 1910; joined Bolsheviks during exile in Russia 1915; organised a Communist group among Turkish prisoners of war; elected president of Turkish CP at its congress in Baku 1920; returned to take part in Turkish independence war and was murdered by police with fourteen companions.

Nam Man-chun [b. 1892)

Korean living in Russia before 1917 revolution; fought in Red Army during civil war; formed first Korean Communist Party in Irkutsk, Siberia, 1920; Third World Congress delegate from Irkutsk faction of Korean CP; member ECCI 1921-2; in Shanghai branch 1926.

Napoleon Bonaparte [Napoleon I] (1769-1821)

French general; military dictator 1799-1804; emperor 1804-15.

National Confederation of Labour [CNT, Spain]

Anarcho-syndicalist federation founded 1911; 800,000 members by end of 1920; affiliated to Comintern 1919 and to RILU 1921-2, banned 1923.

National Labour Secretariat [NAS, Netherlands]

Founded 1893 as small left-wing rival to major Dutch union federation; 36,000 members in 1921; attended RILU founding congress 1921; affiliated to it 1925-7.

National Pact

A declaration by a congress of Turkish representatives, meeting in Ezerum July to August 1919, which demanded recovery of all Turkish territories then under Entente occupation.

National Socialists

In Fourth Congress, refers to the Czechoslovak Socialist Party, then led by Edvard Beneš, a left bourgeois nationalist party enjoying significant working-class support.

Nationalist Party

[Australia] formed in 1917 from a merger between the right-wing Commonwealth Liberal Party, which had ruled twice since 1908, and a pro-conscription breakaway from the Labour Party; the Nationalists held office 1917-23.

Nejad, Ethem

See Ethem Nejad.

Nĕmec, Antonín (1858-1926)

Joined workers’ movement 1876; Czech SDP party chairman and editor in chief of daily Pràvo lidu from 1897; leading figure in Second International; helped lead struggle against Marxist wing of party that became CP; honorary SDP chairman at time of death.


See New Economic Policy.

Neumann, Paul (1888-1934?]

Metalworker; SPD member when very young; joined USPD 1917; leader of revolutionary shop stewards 1918; delegate to first All-German Congress of Workers and Soldiers Councils December 1918; joined KPD in 1920 fusion; opposed March Action 1921; attended Third World Congress as representative of KPD opposition; signed appeal opposing Comintern policies in party; expelled January 1922 and joined KAG, participating in its fusions with USPD and SPD.

Neurath, Alois (1886-1952)

Engraver; joined Austrian SP 1909; active in Sudetenland; member Czechoslovak CP 1921; CC secretary 1922-26; member 4WC Presidium; member ECCI 1922-26; removed from leading posts as supporter of opposition led by Zinoviev and Trotsky 1926; expelled as Trotskyist 1929; joined Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1932; emigrated to Sweden 1948.

New Economic Policy

Series of measures introduced by Soviet Russian government beginning in March 1921; permitted peasants to sell surplus grain freely, restored private trade and small-scale private enterprise, and reined in expenditures of government departments.

Newbold, Walton (1888-1943)

Joined British Independent Labour Party 1910; pacifist during War; joined British CP and its CC 1921; first Communist elected to parliament 1922; elected alternate member ECCI 1922; quit CP and rejoined Labour Party 1924; split from Labour with Ramsay MacDonald and cut ties with socialist movement 1931.

Nikbin, Karim (c1892-1940)

Born in northern Iran; journalist; educated in Moscow; joined Bolsheviks 1917; fought in revolution in Gilan 1920; member Iranian CP 1920; CC secretary 1921-27; 4WC delegate; ousted from leadership posts for ‘factionalism’ 1931; arrested during Stalin purges 1938; executed.

Nikolaeva, Klavdiia Ivanovna (1893-1944)

Bolshevik from 1909; became editor of Rabotnitsa [Working Woman] after February Revolution; a leader of First All-Russian Congress of Women Workers and Peasants 1918; Third World Congress delegate; head of women workers section of CP CC 1924-6; demoted for supporting Leningrad and United Oppositions 1925-7; led agitation section of CC 1930-3; became member of Presidium of Supreme Soviet 1937.

Nin Pérez, Andrés (1892-1937)

Teacher and journalist; joined Spanish Socialist Workers Party and CNT union federation 1917; secretary of CNT executive 1919; favoured affiliation to Comintern; based in Moscow 1921-30; worked in RILU leadership; supported Left Opposition led by Trotsky; expelled from Russian CP 1927; returned to Spain 1930; led Spanish Left Opposition into POUM (United Marxist Workers Party) 1935; fought to defend republic during civil war; member republican government of Catalonia; defended Trotsky against Moscow frame-up trials; arrested on basis of documents forged by Soviet secret police and shot.

Nitti, Francesco (1868-1953)

Parliamentary deputy from 1904; Italian prime minister 1919-20; opponent of Fascism; lived many years in emigration; returned to Italy and political activity after fall of Fascism; senator 1948-53.

Noblemaire, Gustave (1832-1924)

Longtime general manager of Paris, Lyon, & Mediterranean Railway.

Nobs, Ernst (1886-1957)

Member of Swiss SDP left wing during War; active in Zimmerwald movement; opponent of Comintern, active in SDP right wing during 1920s; editor of Volksrecht Zurich 1915-35; president of Switzerland 1949.

Norris, Frank (1870-1902)

American writer; his novels attacked injustice and social decay in U.S. society.

Norwegian Labour Party

Founded 1887; left wing won majority 1918; affiliated to Comintern 1919; 97,000 members end of 1920, including union and individual affiliation; majority left Comintern in 1923, with minority founding CP.

Noske, Gustav (1868-1946)

Leader of German Social Democratic right wing; minister responsible for German armed forces 1919-20; organised violent suppression of workers’ uprisings in Berlin and central Germany in early months of 1919; president of province of Hanover 1920-33; jailed by Nazis 1944-45.

Novaković, Kosta (Stanić) (1886-1939)

Journalist; member Serbian SP 1906; co-founder of Yugoslav CP and member of its CC; supporter of minority faction in CP; 4WC delegate; jailed 1924 and 1926; emigrated to USSR 1927; arrested during Stalin purges 1938; died in camps.

November Revolution

Workers’ and soldiers’ uprising in Germany in early November 1918 that led to fall of monarchy on 9 November and establishment of provisional government composed of SPD and USPD. The same term was also sometimes used to refer to the 7 November 1917 (new style) uprising in Russia. See October Revolution.

Nowaczynski, Adolf (1876-1944)

Polish writer; aligned with right-wing and anti-Semitic National Democracy party; jailed by Nazis during World War 2.

October Revolution

Workers’ and soldiers’ uprising in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) on 25 October 1917, by calendar then used in Russia, which transferred political power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets that convened later that day.

Olberg, Oda (1872-1955)

German-born journalist and socialist activist; moved to Italy 1896; correspondent in Rome for German Vorwärts.

Olsen, Halvard (1886-1966)

Chair of Norwegian metalworkers federation 1919; expelled from Labour Party for voting against Labour Party candidate for union executive 1922; reinstated by Comintern 4WC 1922; co-founder CP 1923 but expelled next year; leader of Norwegian union federation 1925-34; rejoined Labour Party 1927; collaborated with Nazi occupiers 1940-45.

One Big Union [Australia]

Industrial union concept spread in Australia by IWW from 1908; picked up broadly by militant unionists; Workers Industrial Union of Australia formed 1918; Australasian Workers Union formed 1921.

One Big Union [Canada]

Militant union formed in Western Canada 1919; membership reached 40,000-70,000 by late 1919; 5,000 members 1921; joined Canadian Labour Congress 1956.

One Big Union Monthly

Published in Chicago by IWW 1919-21; succeeded by Industrial Pioneer February 1921.

Open Letter

Appeal by the KPD to all other German workers’ organisations on 8 January 1921, calling for united action for a list of immediate demands of workers’ movement.

Oppenheimer, Franz (1864-1943)

German left-wing physician, sociologist and economist; emigrated in 1938 and took refuge in the USA.


Organisation Escherich, a right-wing militia founded by Georg Escherich and utilised in crushing of revolutionary workers’ uprisings 1919; grew with official Bavarian sponsorship into mass organisation; banned 1921; its components continued to function into 1923.


See Antel, Sadrettin Celal.

Orlianges, Yvonne (Clavel) (1894-1976)

Teacher; active in revolutionary wing of CGT after War; founding member of CP 1920; elected to CGTU executive 1922; stayed with CP in Stalin era.

Oudegeest, Jan (1870-1950)

Leader of Dutch railroad workers union from 1898; secretary of Amsterdam International 1919-27; chairman Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party [SDAP] 1927-34; member of ILO Governing Board 1919-28.

Overstraeten, Edouard [‘War’] van (1891-1981)

Painter, founding member Belgian CP; its general secretary and member of ECCI 1921; delegate to Third and Fourth World Congresses; jailed for opposing French/Belgian occupation of Ruhr 1923; led Belgian CC majority in opposing expulsion of Trotsky and Zinoviev 1927; expelled 1928; joined Left Opposition but soon withdrew from political activity.

Owen, Robert (1771-1858)

British capitalist and social reformer; utopian socialist; proponent of producer cooperatives.

Paish, George (1867-1957)

British liberal economist and author; assistant editor (1894-1900) and then co-editor (1900-16) of The Statist; adviser to Ministry of Finance; author of numerous books.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount (1784-1865)

British prime minister 1855-58 and 1859-65; sympathetic to South in U.S. civil war, in which Britain maintained formal neutrality.

Pannekoek, Anton (1873-1960)

Joined Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party [SDAP] 1899; helped found De Tribune 1907; expelled from SDAP and was founding member of left-wing SDP 1909, which became CP in 1918; theoretician of left-wing communism and of German KAPD; his current broke from Comintern 1921; worked with ultraleft groups in Netherlands and US; prominent astronomer.

Päplow, Fritz (1860-1934)

Construction worker; union activist in Chemnitz, then Flensburg; member SPD by 1890; head of German construction workers union 1913-27; helped organise collaboration with employers during War.

Paquereaux, Marius (1885-1943)

Metalworker; socialist municipal councillor before War; Cachin’s secretary 1918-24; joined CP 1921; secretary of its Seine-et-Oise federation; supported Centre current; member of CP executive 1922-24; expelled from CP 1930; joined Party of Proletarian Unity; moved to right in late 1930s; active in collaborationist groups under Nazi occupation; assassinated, apparently by anti-Nazi resistance fighters.

Paris Commune

First revolutionary workers’ government; ruled Paris 28 March to 28 May 1871; its defeat was followed by massacre of more than 10,000 Paris workers.


Participation by revolutionary socialists in bourgeois elections and parliaments; also, the policies utilized to promote this activity.

Pauker, Ana (1893-1960)

Born in Romania; teacher; joined Romanian SDP 1915; leader of Romanian CP; forced into exile 1922; 4WC delegate; returned to Romania and was jailed 1935; exiled in USSR 1941; returned to Romania 1944; a leader of postwar CP; foreign minister from 1947; opposed some Stalinist policies including forced collectivisation; purged as ‘cosmopolitan’ 1952.

Pauker, Marcel (1896-1938)

Born in Bucharest; joined Romanian SP 1918; joined CP 1921; member of its leadership from 1921; jailed, escaped, and fled to USSR 1925; filled various roles in Comintern and Soviet administration; disciplined for independent views 1930; executed during Stalin purges.

Pavlik, Jan

Czechoslovak Communist and trade unionist; 4WC and RILU congress delegate, 1922; elected alternate to RILU executive bureau 1922.

Pavlović, Pavle (1888-1971)

Joined Serbian SP 1905; union activist; co-founder of Yugoslav CP; in emigration 1921-23; supporter of CP minority faction; 4WC delegate; jailed 1923-24; held legislative and union posts 1945-50.

Péju, Élie (1901-1969)

Member French SP at early age; a leader of pro-Comintern current in Lyons region; supported Left current in CP; 4WC delegate; signed letter of protest against ‘Bolshevisation’ 1925; expelled for opposition activity 1927; prominent in resistance in Lyons under Nazi occupation.

Peluso, Edmondo (1882-1942)

Born in Naples; active in socialist movement in Spain, Portugal, and Germany; represented Portugal at Kienthal antiwar conference 1916; active in Spartacus group; member of Italian CP 1921; 4WC delegate; jailed by Fascists 1925; took refuge in USSR 1927; arrested during Stalin purges 1938; executed.

Penelón, José Fernando (1890-1954)

Argentinian typographer; member of SP left wing during War; leader of graphical union in Argentina; director of La Internacional 1918; co-founder Argentinian CP; 4WC delegate; general secretary CP 1924; expelled 1928; subsequently led independent Communist party advocating united front of workers’ parties.

People’s Party [Germany]

Party formed 1865, advocating federative German state and opposing Prussian hegemony; lost influence to SPD after the latter’s formation in 1869.

Péri, Gabriel (1902-41)

Member French SP youth 1917; supporter of affiliation to Comintern; secretary of CP youth in Marseilles region and nationally 1921; supporter of Left current; represented French Communist Youth at 4WC; member CP executive 1924; leading CP journalist in 1930s; arrested for anti-Nazi activities before German invasion of Soviet Union; shot by Nazis.

Péricat, Raymond (1873-1958)

French construction worker; union activist; internationalist during War; partisan of affiliation to Comintern; member of French CP; took part in anti-Nazi resistance; retained links to construction workers’ union and CP until death.

Pétain, Philippe (1856-1951)

French general; pro-Nazi dictator of French state 1940-4; convicted of treason and jailed 1945.

Petlyura, Simon (1879-1926)

A founder of Ukrainian SP 1905; headed anti-Soviet Ukrainian government 1918-19; allied with Poland in anti-Soviet war 1920; notorious for role in anti-Jewish pogroms; assassinated in Paris by anarchist in reprisal for killings of Jews.


See Pavlović, Pavle.

Piatnitsky, Iosif (Osip) (1882-1939)

Tailor; joined RSDLP 1898; emigrated from Russia 1902; Bolshevik; took part in 1905-7 and 1917 revolutions; assigned to Comintern secretariat 1921; chief organiser of Comintern until 1937; opposed Stalin purges 1937; arrested and shot.

Pieck, Wilhelm (1876-1960)

Joined SPD 1895, becoming a leader in Bremen; a secretary of central party school in Berlin 1910-14; joined USPD 1917 and Spartacus League 1918; member of CP CC 1919-46; member of ECCI 1928-43; fled Germany 1933; elected chairman of CP Central Committee 1935; lived in Moscow until 1945; president of German Democratic Republic 1949-60.

Pierpont, Arthur (1875-1932)

Textile worker; joined predecessor of French SP in Tourcoing (Nord) 1894; secretary of its Tourcoing section; partisan of affiliation to Comintern; secretary of CP departmental federation 1921; supported Centre current 1922; expelled 1929 for opposition to Stalin ultraleft course; joined dissident Communist party.

Pilsudski, Józef (1867-1935)

A leader of Polish SP [PPS] 1893-1916 and of fight for Polish independence; president of Poland 1918-22; launched war against Soviet Russia 1920; led coup d’état 1926; played leading role in Polish government 1926-35.

Pintos Pereyra, Francisco Ricardo (1880-1968)

Member Uruguayan SP 1914; co-founder of CP; delegate at expanded ECCI and 4WC 1922; parliamentary deputy 1924; CP presidential candidate 1958; remained active in CP until death.

Pirelli, Alberto (1882-1971)

Italian industrialist; delegate to International Labour Office in Geneva 1920-2; member League of Nations economic committee 1923-7; minister of state under Mussolini 1938.

Pivio, Leo

See Laukki, Leo.

Plais, Louis (1869-1957)

Co-founder of French telephone workers’ union 1889; joined socialist movement 1903; joined CP 1921; supporter of Centre current; nominated alternate member of CP executive at 4WC; not confirmed at January convention.

Planchon, Gabriel

Revolutionary syndicalist; member of French CP 1921; elected to CP national council October 1921; expelled from CP 1923; member of Socialist-Communist Union 1923-26; readmitted to CP 1926 and again expelled 1929.

Plekhanov, Georgy (1856-1918)

Pioneer of Marxism in Russia; influential Marxist theorist; supported Mensheviks in 1903; took chauvinist position in War; opposed October Revolution 1917.

Plekhanov, Georgy Valentinovich (1856-1918)

Pioneer of Marxism in Russia; founder of Emancipation of Labour group 1883; influential Marxist theorist; supported Mensheviks after 1903; took chauvinist position during War; opposed October Revolution 1917.

Poale Zion [Workers of Zion]

Socialist Zionist organisation formed beginning 1897, with branches in eastern Europe, Austria, Palestine, and elsewhere; in Russia majority opposed October Revolution; left wing split in 1919 and formed Jewish CP, Poale Zion, some of whose members joined Russian CP 1922; right-wing Poale Zion later became integrated into Israeli politics.

Podrecca, Guido (1864-1923)

Joined Italian socialist movement early 1890s; prominent socialist journalist and editor; elected municipal councillor in Rome and parliamentary deputy 1907; supported Italian war in Libya; expelled from SP 1912; Mussolini collaborator and active Fascist from 1919.

Pogàny, Jószef (1886-1937)

Hungarian teacher and journalist; joined SDP 1905; joined CP in March 1919 merger; president of Soldiers Council in Budapest during Hungarian soviet regime 1919; emigrated 1919 to Vienna, then Moscow; became ECCI functionary; part of ECCI mission to Germany led by Béla Kun that helped instigate March Action 1921; Third World Congress delegate; became de facto leader of US party as John Pepper 1922; held high posts in ECCI 1925-9; arrested and executed during Stalin frame-up purges.

Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934)

French politician; president of France 1913-20; three times premier, including 1922-24; ordered army to seize Ruhr district to punish Germany for a default in war reparations payments January 1923.

Point 8

one of the Twenty-One Conditions; demanded that Communists ‘support every liberation movement in the colonies not only in words but in deeds’.

Polano, Luigi (1897-1984)

Joined Italian socialist youth 1914, becoming its secretary 1917; participated in founding congress of Communist Youth International 1918; member of its leadership committee 1919-21; founding member of CP and elected to its CC; delegate to Second and Third World Congresses; left Italy 1925 and moved to Soviet Russia; returned to Italy 1945 and became Communist deputy.

Polish Socialist Party [PPS]

Founded 1892-3; nationalist in orientation; right-wing faction adopted chauvinist position during War and supported Pilsudski dictatorship in 1926; left-wing faction split in 1906, joining in creating CP in 1918.

Politiken [Folkets Dagblad Politiken] [People’s Political Daily]

Daily organ of Swedish CP published in Stockholm; edited by Zeth Höglund; became organ of SP after 1929 CP split.


Russian measure of weight equivalent to 16.4 kilograms (36.1 pounds).

Popov, Dimitri (1878-1924)

Active in socialist student movement; became leader of Bulgarian Tesniaki Party, which became CP in 1919; delegate to Third World Congress and elected to ECCI 1921; participated in 1923 Bulgaria insurrection, escaping to Vienna.


The Ottoman Turkish government or its foreign ministry; named for a gate leading to Topkapi Palace in Constantinople.

Poslednye novosti [Latest News]

Daily paper published by Cadet Party in exile in Paris 1920-40; edited by P.N. Milyukov.

Pravda [Truth]

central daily organ of Russian CP, published in Moscow; 250,000 circulation in 1921; began publication as Bolshevik newspaper 1912.

Pràvo lidu [People’s Right]

Czech Social Democratic newspaper published 1893-1938, 1945-8; became organ of right-wing social-democratic party after 1920 split.

Preobrazhensky, Yevgeny (1886-1937)

Born in Russia; economist; joined RSDLP 1903; Bolshevik; alternate member CC 1917; full member 1920; headed CP committee on finances and led transition to New Economic Policy 1921; critic of Stalinist economic policy and a leader of Left Opposition in CP 1923-28; expelled 1927 and exiled to Siberia 1928; readmitted 1930; expelled again and arrested during Stalin frame-up purges 1933 and 1936; refused to confess and was shot.

Pressemane, Adrien (1879-1929)

Joined French socialist movement 1897; SP parliamentary deputy 1914-28; centrist position during War; voiced support for October Revolution but opposed affiliation to Comintern at Tours and became member of dissident SP.

Próchniak, Edward (1888-1937)

Born in Poland; metalworker; joined SDKPiL 1903; many times arrested and deported under tsarism; joined Bolsheviks 1917; co-founder Polish CP 1918; 4WC delegate; member ECCI 1922; arrested and shot during Stalin purges.


Russian short form for the Red International of Labour Unions.

Proost, Jan [I. Jansen] (1882-1942)

Artist; helped smuggle Marxist literature into Germany during War; founding member Dutch CP 1918; CP’s representative in Moscow 1920-3; Third World Congress delegate; left CP with Wijnkoop/Van Ravesteyn group 1926; shot by Nazi troops during occupation.

Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph (1809-65)

French revolutionary theorist and anarchist; friend, later opponent, of Karl Marx; jailed under Louis Napoléon 1849-52; his followers helped found First International 1864.


See Italian Socialist Party.


Unitary Socialist Party (Italy).

Pullman, Joseph

See Johnstone, Jack.

Pyatakov, Yuri Leonidovich (1890-1937)

Joined RSDLP 1910; lived in Switzerland and then Sweden 1914-17; after October Revolution member of government of soviet Ukraine; became deputy head of State Planning Commission 1922 and then deputy chairman of Supreme Council of National Economy; member Left Opposition 1923-7; capitulated 1927; condemned at Moscow frame-up trial and executed.

Quelch, Thomas (1886-1954)

Member of Social Democratic Federation and then British SP; founding member of CP; delegate to Second and Third World Congresses; elected to ECCI 1920; member of CP CC 1923-5; Communist International editorial staff 1920-31; official in construction workers’ union 1924-53; withdrew from CP toward end of life.

Quinton, Augustin (b. 1890)

Metalworker; secretary of metalworkers’ union in Calvados region of Normandy 1919-21; supported left wing in CGT; criticised by Comintern for ties with anarchists June 1922; quit CGTU 1927 and soon withdrew from political activity.

Rabier, Fernand (1855-1933)

French Radical; parliamentary deputy 1888-1919; senator 1920-33.

Radek, Karl (1885-1939)

Born in Austrian Poland; a leader in left wing of Polish and German workers’ movement; internationalist, collaborator of Lenin and supporter of Zimmerwald Left during War; joined Bolsheviks 1917; Bolshevik and Soviet emissary to Germany 1918-19; a central leader of Comintern; with Trotsky, a leader of Left Opposition in Russian CP and Comintern 1923-29; expelled and exiled 1927; capitulated 1929; Soviet journalist 1930-37; arrested 1939; killed by police agent in prison.

Radek, Karl (1885-1939)

Joined revolutionary movement in Austrian Poland before 1905; a leader of left wing of Polish and German workers’ movement; internationalist during War, collaborator of Lenin and supporter of Zimmerwald Left during War; joined Bolsheviks 1917; member of Bolshevik CC 1917-24; vice-commissar for foreign affairs 1918; Bolshevik and Soviet emissary to Germany 1918-19; member ECCI 1920-4 and its Presidium 1921-4; reporter at Third World Congress; with Trotsky, a leader of Left Opposition in Russian CP and Comintern from 1923; expelled and exiled 1927; capitulated 1929; Soviet journalist 1930-7; arrested 1936; convicted in Moscow trial 1937; killed by police agent in prison.


See Radovanović, Ljubomir.

Radical Socialist Party

The major left bourgeois party of France.

Radical Socialist Party [France]

Major left bourgeois party of France, formed 1901.

Radovanović, Ljubomir (Radić) (1887-1964)

Professor; member Yugoslav CP from 1919; elected to parliament 1920; emigrated to Austria 1921; 4WC delegate; returned to Yugoslavia and held various leading posts in CP; expelled as ‘rightist’.

Rahja, Eino A. (1886-1936)

Joined RSDLP 1903; participant in revolutionary movement in Russia and Finland; commanded Red Guard detachment during Finnish revolution 1918; became member of Finnish CP CC 1918; attended First World Congress; opposed Kuusinen leadership and was removed from CC 1927; expelled from party 1930; died of illnesses.

Rahja, Jukka A. (1887-1920)

Finnish Bolshevik; participated in 1905 revolution in Russia; member of Petrograd Bolshevik committee 1917; sent to Finland to organise Red Guard during 1918 revolution; returned to Soviet Russia after its defeat; attended First and Second World Congresses; assassinated in Petrograd August 1920 by rival group of Finnish Communist exiles.

Railroad Workers Association [SFI]

Italian union founded 1907; led by anarchist-socialist coalition; joined CGL 1925.

Ràkosi, Màtyàs (1892-1971)

Joined Hungarian SP 1910; became Communist while prisoner of war in Russia 1918; member of Hungarian soviet government 1919; forced into exile after its fall 1919; carried out missions for Comintern executive; 4WC delegate; captured during mission in Hungary and jailed 1925-1940; head of Hungarian CP and a central leader of government 1945-56; organised Stalin purges in Hungary; ousted and exiled to Kirghizia 1956.

Rakovsky, Christian (1873-1941)

Born in Bulgaria; driven into exile 1890; doctor; active in Socialist movement in several European countries; co-founder of Romanian SP; took part in Zimmerwald Conference 1915; joined Bolsheviks in Russia 1917; leader of Ukrainian soviet government 1919-23; attended first four Comintern congresses; with Trotsky, leader of Left Opposition in Russian CP 1923-34; expelled and exiled 1927; capitulated 1934; rearrested 1937; convicted with Bukharin in frame-up trial 1938; executed.

Rapallo Treaty

Signed by Soviet Russia and Germany on 16 April 1922; normalised relations and strengthened cooperation between the two governments.

Rappoport, Charles (1865-1941)

Born in Lithuania; joined Russian populist movement 1883; in exile from 1887; joined French socialist movement 1897; wrote for Nashe Slovo of Trotsky and Martov during War; supported Zimmerwald Left; favoured SP affiliation to Comintern; member French CP executive 1921-22; opposed ‘Bolshevisation’ of party 1925-26; continued limited activity in CP until 1938, when he denounced Moscow frame-up trials and broke with Stalinism.

Rathenau, Walter (1867-1922)

German capitalist and political leader; organiser of Germany’s economy during war; minister of foreign affairs 1922; advocated collaboration with Entente powers but also negotiated Treaty of Rapallo with Soviet Russia; targeted as a Jew by right-wing hate groups; assassinated by right-wing terror organisation 24 June 1922.

Rathenau, Walter (1867-1922)

German capitalist and political leader; organiser of Germany’s economy during War; became minister of reconstruction May 1921; foreign minister January 1922; advocated collaboration with Entente powers but also negotiated Treaty of Rapallo with Soviet Russia; targeted as Jew by right-wing forces; assassinated 24 June 1922.

Rauf Orbay, Huseyin (1881-1964)

Ottoman naval officer and minister; joined national uprising led by Mustafa Kemal; first prime minister of Turkish republic August 1922.

Ravera, Camilla (1889-1988)

Teacher; joined Italian SP 1918, CP 1921; writer for Gramsci’s l’Ordine nuovo; 4WC delegate; organised CP’s underground centre in first years of fascist rule; candidate member of ECCI Presidium 1928; jailed by fascists 1930-43; opposed Stalin-Hitler pact 1939; expelled for disagreements with CP’s war policy 1941; readmitted and elected to CC 1945.

Ravesteyn, Willem van (1876-1970)

Dutch journalist; member Dutch Social Democracy from 1900; co-founder of left-socialist De Tribune 1907; internationalist and supporter of Zimmerwald Left during War; founding member CP; 4WC delegate; expelled 1926; withdrew from political activity 1927.

Red Aid

Formed early 1921 as German committees to aid political prisoners; International Red Aid [MOPR] formed November 1922.

Red International of Labour Unions

[RILU, Profintern] association of revolutionary trade unions founded at 1921 congress attended by Communist and syndicalist forces, representing more than 18 million members; initially a Comintern affiliate; in November 1922 the formal link was removed and replaced by a collaborative relationship; formally dissolved 1937.

Reed, John (1887-1920)

Journalist; covered labour struggles and Mexican Revolution; in Russia during October Revolution; wrote Ten Days That Shook the World; after his return became active in left wing of American SP and was founding member of Communist Labor Party; returned to Russia to represent CLP at Second World Congress; became member of ECCI; attended Baku Congress of Peoples of the East; died of typhus contracted during trip.

Rees, Alf G. [b. 1884)

Railway unionist; Third World Congress and RILU congress delegate from Australia.

Refet Pasha (Bele) (1881-1963)

A leader of Turkish war of independence 1919-22; government minister 1922; co-founder of Progressive Republican Party in opposition to Kemal Atatürk 1924; after its suppression, withdrew from political life 1926; active again as politician and diplomat from 1935.

Reich, Yakov (Thomas) (1886-1956)

Born in Galicia; active in 1905 Russian revolution; in Switzerland from about 1914; edited Soviet information bulletin there 1918-19; headed Comintern Western European secretariat in Berlin from 1919; withdrew from Comintern work 1925; supported Brandler opposition; exiled from Germany 1933; settled in New York 1938.

Reichenbach, Bernhard [Seemann] (1888-1975)

Socialist student leader in Germany; conscripted during War; joined USPD and Spartacus League 1917; founding member of CP; expelled with ultraleft 1919, became leader of KAPD and editor of Kommunistische Arbeiterzeitung; KAPD representative at ECCI and Third World Congress 1921; part of split from KAPD March 1922; rejoined SPD 1925; joined Socialist Workers Party [SAP] in 1931-2; escaped to Britain following Hitler’s rise to power.

Reicher, Gustaw [Rwal] (1900-38)

Joined SDKPiL 1917; member of Polish CP 1918; member of its Political Bureau in Moscow 1920; worked in Poland and Germany; Third World Congress delegate; imprisoned in Poland 1925-8; worked for ECCI in USSR 1928-9; member of International Brigade in Spanish Civil War; recalled to Moscow, arrested, and shot.

Reiland, Edy (1896-1967)

Member of Luxembourg SP during War; elected to national leadership of Socialist Youth December 1919; organised 1921 founding of CP; became CP general secretary January 1921 and its delegate to Comintern; Third World Congress delegate; accused of financial mismanagement of Comintern funds, excluded from leadership February 1922; resigned from CP; supported Trotskyist movement 1929; later abandoned political activity.

Renaud Jean

See Jean, Renaud.

Renaudel, Pierre (1871-1935)

veterinarian; leader of right wing of French SP; social patriot during War; parliamentary deputy 1914-19, 1924-35; opposed SP affiliation to Comintern; led ‘neo-socialist’ split from SP 1933.

Renaudel, Pierre (1871-1935)

Leader of right wing of French SP; social patriot during War; parliamentary deputy 1914-19, 1924-35; opposed SP affiliation to Comintern and became part of dissident SP; led ‘neo-socialist’ split from SP 1933.

Renner, Karl (1870-1950)

Right-wing leader of Austrian SDP; Austrian chancellor 1918-20, 1945; president 1945-50.

Renoult, Daniel (1880-1958)

Proofreader; member of French SP, then CP; led independent ‘Centre-Right’ current in party 1922; 4WC delegate; jailed by republican government February 1940 and held in jail by Vichy regime until freed by anti-Nazi resistance July 1944; active in CP until death.

Renoult, Daniel (1880-1958)

Joined French SP 1906, member CP directing committee 1920-2; editor L’Internationale 1921-2; led independent ‘Centre-Right’ current in party 1922; imprisoned by republican government February 1940 and held in jail by Vichy regime until freed by anti-Nazi resistance July 1944; active in CP until his death.

Repossi, Luigi (1882-1957)

Lathe operator; member SP from about 1900; jailed for antiwar activity 1917; leader of Milan metalworkers after War; supported SP left wing; member of CP executive 1921; parliamentary deputy 1921; supported Bordiga current; jailed 1926-28; expelled from CP for opposing condemnation of Trotsky 1928; continued Communist activity; interned during war; joined SP after fall of Fascism.

Reşid Pasha, Mustafa (1800-1858)

Ottoman statesman and diplomat; six times grand vizier 1845-57; architect of Ottoman administrative reform known as Tanzimat.

Reuter, Ernst (Friesland) (1889-1953)

Teacher; joined SPD 1912; won to Communism while prisoner of war in Russia; leader of pro-Soviet prisoners and of Volga German workers commune; member of German CP Central Bureau 1919; supported, then later opposed ultraleft March Action 1921; expelled January 1922; rejoined SPD; jailed by Nazis 1933, in emigration 1935-46; mayor of West Berlin 1948-1953.

Reuter, Ernst [Friesland] (1889-1953)

Teacher; joined SPD 1912; won to communism while prisoner of war in Russia; leader of pro-Soviet prisoners and of Volga German workers’ commune; member of German CP Zentrale 1919; became CP general secretary after Levi’s expulsion; Third World Congress delegate; during late 1921 moved toward Levi’s position; expelled January 1922; rejoined SPD; jailed by Nazis 1933, in emigration 1935-46; mayor of West Berlin 1948-53.

Revolutionary Union Minority [France]

Reference to left-wing minority in CGT; split consummated December 1921; minority founded Unitary CGT [CGTU], which affiliated to RILU and had 350,000 members by mid-1922.

Riboldi, Ezio (1878-1965)

Joined Italian SP 1898; supported Maximalist wing of party at Livorno; PSI representative at Third World Congress; a leader of pro-Comintern faction of PSI October 1921; joined CP in 1924 fusion; imprisoned by Fascist regime 1926-33; expelled from CP 1934 for his pardon request; interned 1940 in concentration camp; collaborated with Fascist newspaper La Verit edited by Bombacci 1940-3.

Riehs, Jakob [b. 1882)

Metalworker; founding member of Austrian CP November 1918; Third World Congress delegate; worked in Soviet Union during 1920s; expelled from Austrian CP 1929; joined SP after 1945.

Rieu, Roger (1896-1936)

Secretary of CP in Bordeaux region 1922; supporter of Left current; 4WC delegate; member of the CP executive 1923-24 and CC 1925-26; left CP by 1931.

Rigola, Rinaldo (1868-1954)

Joined Italian Workers Party 1886 and SP 1893, becoming part of its reformist wing; general secretary of CGL union federation from its founding in 1906; a founder of reformist Unitary Socialist Party [PSU] 1922.


See Red International of Labour Unions.


See Red International of Labour Unions.

Rios, Fernando de los (1879-1949)

University teacher; joined Spanish Socialist Workers Party 1919; elected to its executive 1920; visited Soviet Russia 1920; opposed affiliation to Comintern; opposed Primo de Rivera dictatorship 1923-30; jailed 1930-31; minister 1931 and 1933; ambassador for republic in Paris and New York during civil war; taught in New York after fall of republic.

Ríos, Fernando de los (1879-1949)

University teacher; joined Spanish Socialist Workers Party 1919; elected to its executive 1920; visited Soviet Russia 1920; opposed affiliation to Comintern; opposed Primo de Rivera dictatorship 1923-30; jailed 1930-1; minister 1931 and 1933; ambassador for Spanish republic in Paris and New York during Civil War; taught in New York after fall of republic.

Robespierre, Maximilien (1758-94)

Jacobin leader of French revolutionary government 1793-4; overthrown and executed in Thermidorean Reaction.

Roland-Holst, Henriette (1869-1952)

Dutch poet and writer; joined Dutch socialist movement 1897; belonged to left wing of Social Democratic Workers Party [SDAP]; joined left-wing SDP 1916; member of Zimmerwald Left during War; founding member of Dutch CP 1918; Third World Congress delegate; left CP 1927; continued to write as socialist; active in resistance during Nazi occupation; advocate of colonial freedom until last years.

Roosevelt, Theodore (1858-1919)

Commanded U.S. detachment in Cuba during Spanish-U.S. war 1898; U.S. president 1901-9.

Rosenberg, Arthur (1889-1943)

University teacher and historian; member USPD 1918; joined KPD 1920; supporter of Left opposition led by Ruth Fischer; member ECCI presidium 1924; Reichstag deputy 1924-28; quit KPD 1927; in Swiss, British, then U.S. exile from 1933.

Rosenfeld, Kurt (1877-1943)

Left-wing member of SPD; Berlin city councilman 1910-20; founding member USPD 1917; member of Reichstag 1920-33; opposed Comintern affiliation and remained in rump USPD; an opponent of 1922 USPD-SPD merger, but joined SPD on his own; expelled 1931 as part of left-wing split; founding member Socialist Workers Party [SAP]; resigned 1932; emigrated to US 1933.

Rosmer, Alfred (1877-1964)

Proofreader; French revolutionary syndicalist; leader in France of internationalist opposition to War; member ECCI in Moscow 1920-21; leader of Left current in French CP; 4WC delegate; expelled for opposition to anti-Trotsky campaign 1924; organiser of pro-Trotsky Left Opposition 1929-31; broke with Trotsky 1931 but collaborated with him and with Movement for Fourth International after 1936.

Rosmer, Alfred (1877-1964)

Proofreader; French revolutionary syndicalist; leader in France of internationalist opposition to War; represented Committee for the Third International at Second World Congress; member ECCI in Moscow 1920-1; Third World Congress delegate; played leading role in founding of RILU; expelled from French CP for opposition to anti-Trotsky campaign 1924; organiser of Left Opposition in France 1929-31; broke with Trotsky 1931 but collaborated with him and with Movement for Fourth International after 1936.

Rossbach, Gerhard (1893-1967)

German officer; after 1918, led independent right-wing military unit based first in Latvia and then in rural Prussia; engaged in brutal suppression of workers’ and peasants’ struggles, with surreptitious aid from the German army; joined Nazis 1922; purged by Nazis from official posts for alleged homosexuality 1934.

Rossoni, Edmundo (1884-1965)

Joined Italian SP about 1900; union activist; initially antimilitarist; backed Italy’s entry in war 1914; joined Fascist movement; led Fascist trade unions from February 1922; later Fascist minister; opposed Mussolini 1943; convicted for collaboration with Fascism 1945; amnestied 1948.

Rote Fahne, Die

Founded by Luxemburg and Liebknecht November 1918; became main newspaper of the KPD.

Rouble, Gold

Russian currency, worth about US$0.50 in 1922.

Roy, Manabendra Nath (1887-1954)

Active in Indian independence movement from 1910; emigrated 1915; won to Marxism in U.S. 1917; co-founder of Mexican CP 1919; worked in Comintern Far Eastern Bureau and founded CP of India in exile in Tashkent 1920; member ECCI 1922-27; Comintern representative to China 1927; expelled for ‘opportunism’ 1929; worked with anti-Stalinist opposition led by Brandler; returned to India 1930; led current critical of Comintern sectarianism on national question; jailed 1931-36; joined Congress Party 1936; founded Radical Democratic Party 1940.

Roy, Manabendra Nath (1887-1954)

Active in Indian independence movement from 1910; went abroad 1915 on mission for independence movement; won to Marxism in US 1917; participated in founding Mexican CP 1919; worked in Comintern Far Eastern Bureau and founded CP of India in exile in Tashkent 1920; delegate to Second through Sixth World Congresses; member ECCI 1922-7; Comintern representative to China 1927; expelled for ‘opportunism’ 1929; worked with anti-Stalinist opposition led by Brandler; returned to India 1930; led current critical of Comintern sectarianism on national question; jailed 1931-6; joined Congress Party 1936; founded Radical Democratic Party 1940.

Rozmirovich, Yelena (1886-1953)

Member of RSDLP 1904; member Bolshevik CC by 1913; took part in international socialist women’s conference in Bern 1915; chair of investigating commission of Soviet supreme court 1918-22; held other leading posts through 1930s.


Russian Social Democratic Labour Party; founded 1898; divided into Bolshevik and Menshevik wings 1903.


See Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.

Rudas, Làszló (1885-1950)

Joined Hungarian SP about 1905; journalist; co-founder Hungarian CP and member of its CC 1918; in exile from 1919; teacher and writer in Moscow from 1922; 4WC delegate; active in ECCI apparatus 1922; briefly arrested 1938 and 1941; headed party school in Hungary from 1945.

Rudé pràvo [Red Rights]

Daily organ of Czechoslovak CP published in Prague; began publication September 21, 1920.

Rudnyànszky, Endre (1885-1943)

Lawyer; won to Bolshevism as Austro-Hungarian prisoner in Russia; took part in formation of Hungarian Communist group in Russia; representative of Hungarian soviet republic in Moscow 1919; took part in First and Second World Congresses; disappeared from Soviet Russia with Comintern funds; expelled from Hungarian CP 1921; returned to USSR 1926 and served fifteen years in prison.

Rue Lafayette

Site of the CGT headquarters in Paris.

Rühle, Otto (1874-1943)

Joined German SPD 1896; Reichstag deputy 1912-18; second deputy to oppose war credits after Liebknecht; a founder of Spartacus group and of CP; part of October 1919 split that established KAPD; represented it in Moscow summer 1920; expelled late October 1920 and founded General Workers Union; rejoined SPD 1923; helped defend Trotsky against Stalin frame-up.

Rupprecht von Bayern (1869-1955)

Bavarian crown prince and general until 1918 revolution; subsequently pretender to the Bavarian throne.

Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

[RSDLP] founded 1898; split into Bolshevik and Menshevik wings 1903.

Russian Workers Federation of South America

Communist anarchist organisation based among Russian immigrants in Argentina.

Rutgers, Sebald Justinus (1879-1961)

Engineer; joined Dutch SP 1899; member left-socialist SDP from 1909; moved to U.S. during War and joined SP left; moved to Russia 1918; delegate to Comintern founding congress 1919; took part in left-communist Comintern bureau in Amsterdam 1920; 4WC delegate; headed international cooperative in Kuzbas, Siberia, 1922-26; returned to Netherlands at height of Stalin purges 1938; remained in CP until death.

Ruthenberg, Charles E. (1882-1927)

Joined U.S. SP 1909; editor of Cleveland Socialist; jailed for a year for antiwar statements 1918; national secretary U.S. CP from 1919; jailed again 1920-22; 4WC delegate; alternate member ECCI 1922; full member 1924.

Rybacki, Stefan (1887-1937)

Joined SDKPiL 1906; parliamentary deputy for Polish CP, arrested 1922; later emigrated to USSR; arrested and shot during Stalin purges.

Rydygier, Aleksander Juliusz [Kamocki] (1892-1942)

Teacher; originally member of Polish SP [PPS], then joined SDKPiL 1914; founding member Polish CP; Third World Congress delegate; CP member of Parliament 1930-5; helped refound Polish CP after its dissolution by Stalin 1942; died at Auschwitz.


See Schwab, Alexander.

Safarov, G.I. (1891-1942)

Bolshevik from 1908; exiled, then returned to Russia with Lenin 1917; leader of Soviet and Comintern work among peoples of the East; defender of rights of national minorities; 4WC delegate; member ECCI 1922; supporter of Leningrad opposition led by Zinoviev 1925 and United Opposition led by Zinoviev and Trotsky 1926; expelled from CP 1927; readmitted 1928; re-expelled and arrested 1934; executed.

Saint-Germain, Treaty of

Signed by the victorious Allies of World War 1 and the republic of Austria on 10 September 1919. It declared dissolution of Austro-Hungarian empire, transferred formerly Austrian territory to several countries, and imposed war reparations on Austria.

Salandra, Antonio (1853-1931)

Italian conservative politician; premier 1914-16; led Italy into War; supported Fascism during its rise to power.

Salih Hacioglu (1880-1954)

Army officer; co-founder of Turkish CP; jailed 1921; represented party in Moscow 1922-23; 4WC delegate; expelled from Turkish CP 1923; arrested in USSR during Stalin purges about 1938; died in Soviet concentration camp.


Metalworker in Paris region; active in CP in Paris region and supporter of its Left current; alternate member of CP executive 1922-23; member Control Commission 1924; ‘Salles’ was among signers of 1927 appeal on behalf of Left Opposition in Russian CP; may have been Camille Salles, born in Bordeaux region 1885.

Samoilova, Konkordia Nikolaevna (1876-1921)

Born in Irkutsk, Russia; active in revolutionary movement 1897; joined RSDLP 1903; co-editor of Pravda and Rabotnitsa [Woman Worker] 1912; co-editor Kommunistka [Communist Woman] 1918; chair of Petersburg commission for work among women after 1917.

Samuelson, Oskar (b. 1885)

Joined Swedish socialist youth 1909; elected to executive of Communist Youth International 1921; co-founder Swedish CP 1921; 4WC delegate; alternate member ECCI 1924-28; Stockholm city councillor for CP in 1930s.

Sandgren, John

Swedish immigrant to US; anarcho-syndicalist; editor of Swedish-language IWW newspaper Nya Världen 1919; editor of One Big Union Monthly 1919-20, dismissed from it by IWW leadership because of attacks on Soviet Russia.

Sankey John (1866-1948)

British politician and jurist; Conservative, later with Labour Party; headed official commission of inquiry into conditions in coal mines 1919; recommended their nationalisation.

Sarekat Islam [Islamic Association]

First mass nationalist political party in Indonesia; founded 1912; 350,000 members by 1916; Communist forces participated until their exclusion in March 1921; organisation declined after left-wing departure.


See Stokes, Rose Pastor.

Savinkov, Boris (1879-1925)

A leader of Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party; minister in Provisional Government 1917; led armed actions against Soviet government during Civil War; organised anti-Soviet detachments in Poland 1920-21; reentered Soviet republic 1924 and died in Soviet custody.

Schaffner, Erwin (1883-1942)

Member of Swiss SDP 1907-20; a founding leader of Swiss CP 1921; editor of Basler Vörwarts 1920-2; Third World Congress delegate; member ECCI 1926-8; moved to Soviet Union 1926 and worked for Comintern; sympathised with Left Opposition 1926-8; suffered political harassment but escaped purges in 1930s; died in USSR.

Scheflo, Olav (1883-1943)

Joined Norwegian Labour Party 1905; a leader of left opposition in unions 1911; became editor-in-chief of central party organ Social Democrat 1918; supported Labour Party affiliation to Comintern; delegate to Third and Fourth World Congresses; member ECCI 1921-7; stayed with Comintern when Labour Party split from it 1923; criticised CP’s stance toward Labour Party and quit CP 1928; rejoined Labour Party 1929; defended Trotsky during his stay in Norway 1935-6.

Scheidemann, Philipp (1865-1939)

Joined German Social Democracy 1883; member SPD executive 1911; co-chair of Reichstag fraction 1913; social chauvinist during War; led in suppressing workers’ revolution 1918-19; German prime minister February to June 1919; forced by Nazis into emigration 1933.


Communist term for reformist leaders of the SPD and their equivalents abroad, as exemplified by Philipp Scheidemann, who headed Germany’s government during the decisive period of its war against the revolutionary workers’ movement in 1919.

Schiffel, Jozef (1880-1959)

Member CC of Czechoslovak CP 1921; delegate to 4WC 1922; remained longtime member of CP.

Schmidt, Robert (1864-1943)

Joined German Social Democracy 1883; a Vorwärts editor 1893-1903; member of General Commission of German Trade Unions 1902-19; supported German war effort 1914-18; minister of food 1919; economics minister 1919-20, 1921-2, and 1929-30; vice-chancellor and minister of reconstruction 1923.

Schober, Johann (1874-1932)

President of imperial police in Austria 1918; Austrian prime minister 1921-2, 1929-30.

Schreiber, Hesekil (1899-1943)

Born in Poland; member of Polish CP and its Central Committee; 4WC delegate; lived in Palestine from mid-1920s; recruited there by Leopold Trepper to Soviet intelligence service; interned in France 1940; worked in the Lyons unit of Trepper’s Europe-wide resistance organisation ‘Rote Kapelle’ 1942-43; arrested by Nazis and executed in Berlin.

Schreiner, Albert (1892-1979)

Mechanic; joined SPD 1910; member Spartacus group during War; member CP; a leader of its military wing 1923; expelled from CP as ‘opportunist’ 1929; joined Brandler’s opposition group; forced by Nazis into emigration 1933; rejoined CP in late 1930s; fought in International Brigades in Spanish Civil War; returned to East Germany 1946; assailed for oppositional record 1950-52.

Schüller, Richard (1901-1957)

Joined Austrian Communist youth and party 1918; leader of Communist Youth International 1919-28; 4WC delegate; member ECCI organisational bureau 1922, member ECCI 1924; returned to Austria 1928-34; frequently arrested; in Soviet Union 1934-45; elected to CC of Austrian CP 1948.

Schulze, Ernst (1855-1932)

official in German trade union federation [ADGB]; SPD member.

Schumann, Georg (1886-1945)

Toolmaker; joined SPD 1905; in Spartacus group during War; jailed for socialist work in army; leader of CP in Leipzig from 1919; member CC 1923-24; supported Meyer’s ‘conciliator’ current in party; jailed again 1926-27; opposed Stalin course but made ‘self-criticism’ 1929; in Nazi concentration camp 1933-39; leader of communist resistance in Leipzig from 1941; contrary to Moscow line, called for struggle for socialism; arrested 1944; tortured and executed.

Schwab, Alexander [Sachs] (1887-1943)

Printer; joined German SPD 1907; member of Spartacus League and founder of CP; a founder of KAPD 1920; Third World Congress delegate; left KAPD 1922 and later rejoined SPD.

Scoccimarro, Mauro (1895-1972)

Initially supporter, then opponent of War; member Italian SP 1917 and CP 1921; 4WC delegate; jailed by Fascists 1926; freed by resistance 1943; fought in anti-Fascist resistance; active in CP after Liberation.


Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania; founded 1893; best-known leader was Rosa Luxemburg; merged into Polish CP December 1918.


Social Democratic Party of Germany; founded 1875; majority leadership backed German imperialist war effort 1914; left-wing oppositionists formed Spartacus League 1916 and USPD 1917; headed restabilisation of German capitalist rule after November 1918.


Social Democratic Party.

Second Congress

The Comintern’s Second Congress took place in Moscow, July to August 1920; term is also used for Second Congress of Communist Youth International in July 1921.

Second International

Founded 1889 as international association of workers parties; collapsed at outbreak of World War 1; pro-capitalist right wing reconstituted as Berne International 1919 and as Labour and Socialist International 1923.

SED [Socialist Unity Party of Germany]

Formed by fusion of KPD and SPD in Soviet-occupied East Germany 1926; governing party of German Democratic Republic 1949-1989.


See Reichenbach, Bernhard.

Seiden, Armin (1885-1931)

Active in Hungarian workers’ movement in Slovakia; member Czechoslovak CP 1921; leader of its local committee in Košice; later removed from CP’s staff; lived abroad.

Sellier, Henri (1883-1943)

Bank and commercial employee; joined French socialist movement about 1898; union and cooperative activist; mayor of Suresnes 1919-41; joined CP 1921; leader of right wing hostile to Comintern discipline; expelled 1922; rejoined SP 1924; noted for local initiatives in social housing and public health; ousted from mayoralty by Vichy regime.

Sellier, Louis (1885-1978)

Postal worker; member French SP 1909; member CP executive 1921; supported Centre current; CP general secretary 1923-24; expelled as ‘rightist’ 1929; led dissident communist current 1930-37; rejoined SP 1937; voted powers to Pétain 1940; served in municipal offices during German occupation; expelled from SP 1944.

Sembat, Marcel (1862-1922)

Elected French socialist deputy 1893, becoming leading figure in parliamentary group; member of SP National Council from 1905; supported French war effort, becoming minister of public works 1914-16; opposed SP affiliation to Comintern and remained in Dissident party after 1920 split.

Semyonov, Grigorii Mikhailovich (1890-1946)

Russian officer in World War I; leader of White Armies in civil war in Trans-Baikal region 1918-20; driven into exile 1921; during World War II worked with Japanese in north China; captured by Soviet army in Manchuria and executed.

Serbian Socialist Party

See Social Democratic Party of Serbia.

Serge, Victor (1890-1947)

Born in Belgium to Russian revolutionary exiles; wrote for anarchist press from 1908; jailed in France 1912-17; arrived in Russia late 1918 and joined Bolsheviks; translated, wrote, and published for Comintern from 1919; in Germany 1922-3; supported Left Opposition led by Trotsky from 1923; expelled from CP 1928; jailed 1933; lived in Belgium and France from 1936 and Mexico from 1941.

Serrati, Giacinto Menotti (1874-1926)

Member of Italian SP left wing from youth; leader of Maximalist left wing; internationalist during War; led SP in affiliation to Comintern 1919; opposed break with reformists and remained head of SP after CP formation 1921; 4WC delegate; led SP’s pro-Comintern current into CP 1924.

Severing, Carl (1875-1952)

Joined SPD 1893; Prussian SPD member of Reichstag 1907-11; supported German war effort 1914-18; Prussian minister of interior 1920-6, 1930-2.

Sèvres, Treaty of

Signed 10 August 1920 between Ottoman Turkey and Allied victors of World War 1; partitioned most of Ottoman Empire among the Allied powers; nullified by Turkish victory in war of independence 1922; replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne 1923.

Shablin, Nikolai (1881-1925)

Member of Bulgarian Tesniaki Party, which became CP in 1919; member of its CC; Second World Congress delegate; elected to ECCI 1920; carried out underground work in Bulgaria after 1923; assassinated by police.

Shapiro, L.G. (M. Shanin) (1887-1957)

Joined Bund in Riga 1903; Menshevik; joined Bolsheviks 1918; active in Soviet educational work; member of presidium of Soviet political education division; expelled from CP in campaign against corrupt elements 1921; subsequently readmitted.

Shatskin, Lazar Abramovich (1902-1937)

Joined Bolshevik Party 1917; Communist Youth League first secretary 1919-22; first secretary of CYI 1919-21; delegate to Second through Fifth World Congresses; supported Stalin in late 1920s; barred from political activity for oppositional views 1931; expelled from CP and arrested 1935; tortured and shot.

Shaukat Ali, Maulana (1873-1938)

A leader of Muslims in struggle against British rule in India; took part in Indian National Congress Non-Cooperation Movement 1919-1922; later broke with Congress and joined Muslim League; brother of Muhammad Ali Jauhar.

Shlyapnikov, Aleksandr Gavrilovich (1885-1937)

Joined RSDLP 1901; active in European labour movement in exile 1908-14; in 1915-16 organised Bolsheviks’ Russian Bureau and traveled abroad on political assignment; member of Petrograd Bolshevik Committee during 1917; Soviet commissar of labour 1917-18; leader of Workers Opposition 1920-2; expelled from party 1933; arrested 1935 and later executed.

Shop Stewards [Britain]

originated in Scotland 1915; grew during wartime strike wave; advanced revolutionary demands opposed to official trade union leadership’s no-strike policy; declined after 1918, with many militants joining CP.

Shumiatsky, Boris Zakharovich (1886-1938)

Railway worker; joined Bolsheviks after 1905 revolution; helped organise Comintern Secretariat for the Far East in Irkutsk 1920-1, representing it at Third World Congress; Soviet ambassador to Iran 1922-5; head of Soviet film industry 1930-7; executed during Stalin purges.

Shumsky, Oleksander (1890-1946)

Member of Ukrainian Socialist Revolutionary Party 1908; a leader of its left wing that formed Borotbist Party 1918; member of Ukrainian military revolutionary committee during civil war; joined Russian CP 1920; Third World Congress delegate; Ukrainian commissar of education 1924-7; expelled in 1933 and jailed; released 1946 but died under mysterious circumstances.

Siegfried, Jules (1837-1922)

French cotton merchant; parliamentary deputy from Le Havre 1885-97; 1902-22; advocate of low-cost housing and votes for women.

Sievers, Max (1887-1944)

USPD member and editor of Freiheit 1918; joined German CP in 1920 fusion; became an editor of Rote Fahne and a secretary for Zentrale; relieved from position for criticising March Action April 1921; left CP April 1921; rejoined SPD and became president of Society for Free Thought; living underground in northern France from 1940, he was captured by Gestapo and executed.

Silfs [Šilfs], Janis (1891-1921)

Member of Latvian Bolsheviks from 1908; CC member of Latvian SDP from 1914, renamed CP 1919; a secretary of soviet Latvian government January 1919; following its overthrow later that year he was CP secretary and editor of its newspaper Cina; arrested by secret police and shot.

Sirola, Yrjö E. (1876-1936)

Joined Finnish SDP 1903; SDP general secretary 1905-6; parliamentary deputy 1907-9, 1917; in charge of foreign affairs for soviet Finnish government 1918; fled to Russia after its fall; helped found Finnish CP 1918; Third World Congress delegate; elected to ECCI 1921; Comintern representative in US 1925-7; commissar for education in Karelian SSR 1928-31; member of nationalities committee of Comintern 1931-6.

Sirolle, Henri (1885-1962)

French railway worker; anarchist; active in revolutionary left of CGT after War; partisan of affiliation to Comintern; attended first congress of Red International of Labour Unions 1921; quit CGTU 1922; rejoined CGT 1927; later active in railway management.

Skalàk, Josef (1874-1968)

Czech socialist from 1890s; founding member of Czechoslovak CP 1921; editor of Rudé pràvo from 1920; member of CP executive committee 1921-5; Third World Congress delegate; expelled from CP 1929.

Sliwinski, Artur (1877-1953)

Member Polish SP 1914; active in Polish independence movement; municipal official in Warsaw 1918-22; prime minister June to July 1922.

Slusarsji [Ślusarski]

See Kowalski, Wladislaw.

Small Bureau [Engeres Büro]

Body elected by ECCI following Second World Congress; became ECCI Presidium in September 1921;

Smeral [Šmeral], Bohumir (1880-1941)

Member of Czech Social Democracy from 1897; elected to its Central Executive Committee 1909; held chauvinist positions during the war; SDP chairman 1914-17; leader of Marxist Left from 1919; head of Czechoslovak CP 1921; attended Third World Congress; member ECCI 1921-35; in Moscow 1926-35; member International Control Commission 1935-41.

Smidovich, Sofia Nikolaevna (1872-1934)

Joined RSDLP 1898; Bolshevik; secretary of Moscow bureau of Bolshevik CC 1917; leader of women’s division of Russian CP (Zhenotdel) in Moscow 1919-22; head of Zhenotdel 1922-24; represented Russian CP in International Women’s Secretariat from 1922; 4WC delegate; on staff of party Control Commission 1925-30; subsequently worked for Society of Old Bolsheviks.

Smillie, Robert (1857-1940)

President of Scottish Miners’ Federation 1894-1918 and 1922-8; founding member Independent Labour Party 1893; president of Miners’ Federation of Great Britain 1912-21; leading figure in campaign for nationalisation of coal industry; Labour Party member of Parliament 1923-9.

Smith, F.E., Earl of Birkenhead (1872-1930)

British Conservative politician; lord chancellor 1919-22; favoured armed resistance to Turkey September 1922.

Smuts, Jan Christian (1870-1950)

South African lawyer, officer, and politician; fought against Britain in Boer War and with Britain in two world wars; prime minister (1919-24, 1939-48); supporter of racial segregation and disenfranchisement of Black majority.

Smythe, Norah (1874-1963)

Worked with Sylvia Pankhurst in women’s suffrage movement; treasurer of Workers’ Socialist Federation 1916; member British CP; elected to Women’s Secretariat of Communist Women’s Movement at its Second Conference 1921; Third World Congress delegate; left CP later in year.

Sneevliet, Henk (Maring) (1883-1942)

Dutch railway worker; joined Dutch Social Democratic Workers’ Party 1902; resettled in Java 1913; founding leader of Indies Social Democratic Association 1914; supported Russian October revolution 1917; deported from Dutch Indies 1918; joined Dutch CP 1919; Comintern representative in China 1921-23; left Dutch CP as supporter of Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1927; led Revolutionary Socialist Party sympathetic to Trotsky’s views from 1929; active in resistance to Nazi occupation until captured and executed.

Social Democratic Party of Finland

Formed 1899 as Finnish Labour Party; became SDP 1903; internationalist position during War; after working-class defeat in 1918 civil war, left wing in exile founded CP; within Finland left-wing split established Socialist Workers Party May 1920.

Social Democratic Party of Germany [SPD]

Founded 1875 from fusion of Marxists and Lassalleans; central party of Second International; majority leadership backed German imperialist war effort 1914; left-wing oppositionists formed Spartacus League 1916 and USPD 1917; headed restabilisation of German capitalist rule after November 1918 revolution.

Social Democratic Party of Hungary

Formed 1890; chauvinist position during War; fused with CP and helped lead Hungarian soviet republic May to August 1919; re-established 1921; functioned as legal reformist opposition under Horthy dictatorship.

Social Democratic Party of Serbia

Founded 1903; internationalist position during War; predecessor of Socialist Workers [Communist] Party of Yugoslavia 1919; 80,000 members 1921; minority split to become Yugoslav SDP, with 10,000 members.

Social Democratic Party of Slovakia

Founded 1919 by Hungarian, German, and Slovak sections of Slovakian socialist movement; adopted programme of Comintern October 1920; left wing merged with International Socialist Party of Ruthenia January 1921; joined with SDP of Czechoslovakia in creation of Czechoslovak CP May 1921; right-wing minority split off and eventually became Hungarian section of Czechoslovak SDP.

Social Democratic Party of Sweden

Constituted 1889; chauvinist position during War; left wing expelled 1917; member of coalition governments 1917-20, 1921-3, 1924-6.

Social Democratic Party of Switzerland

Formed 1888; during War took centrist position and helped lead Zimmerwald movement; withdrew from Second International 1919; left wing split and joined CP 1921; 40,000 members in mid-1921; founding member of Two-and-a-Half International 1921.

Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria

Founded 1888-9 as federation of national parties within Austro-Hungarian Empire; broke apart along national lines by 1912; chauvinist position during War; led governmental coalition 1918-20; leading party in Two-and-a-Half International; 336,000 members in November 1920.

Social patriots

Communist term for Social Democratic and trade union leaders who supported their capitalist rulers in the war effort of 1914-18 and their scramble for territory and wealth after the war.

Socialist Concentration

Reformist faction in the Italian Socialist Party led by Filippo Turati; won 14,695 votes at the party’s January 1921 Livorno Congress.

Socialist Labor Party [SLP, US]

Founded 1876; in 1890 Daniel De Leon assumed leadership and party adopted sectarian stance; initially sympathetic to October Revolution but soon broke with it and rejected Comintern; 5,000 members in 1920.

Socialist Party of America

Founded 1901; communist left wing expelled 1919; membership referendum voted for conditional Comintern affiliation 1920, which was rejected; joined centrist Two-and-a-Half International 1922; 13,000 members in 1921.

Socialist Party of Slovakia

See Social Democratic Party of Slovakia.

Socialist Party of Uruguay

Founded 1910; 500 members 1916; joined Comintern and changed name to CP September 1920.

Socialist Party, Australia

See Australian Socialist Party.

Socialist Party, French Section of the Workers International [SFIO]

Formed 1905 as fusion of parties led by Guesde and Jaurès; took chauvinist position during War; centrists won majority 1918; 180,000 members at time of December 1920 Tours Congress, which voted to join Comintern and change name to CP; minority (‘Dissidents’) split off and retained old name, with 30,000 members.

Socialist Party, Italy

See Italian Socialist Party.

Socialist Revolutionary Party

[SRs] Russian party formed 1901, coming out of populist Narodnik tradition; member of Second International; during War contained chauvinist and internationalist wings; split in 1917, majority supported Provisional Government and opposed October Revolution; Left SRs briefly joined Soviet government but took up arms against it in 1918; Left SR minority joined CP.

Socialist Workers Party of Spain

[PSOE] founded 1879; chauvinist position during War; voted for Comintern affiliation 1920, but reversed position the following year; left wing split April 1921 to form Communist Workers Party; 42,000 members in 1919.

Socialist Workers Party, Chile

Founded 1912; voted to join Comintern February 1921; changed name to CP January 1922.

Socialist Workers Party, Finland

See Communist Party, Finland.

Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Frequently termed the ‘Social Revolutionary Party’ in the 4WC proceedings; formed in 1901; supported by most peasant delegates to soviets 1917; left wing took part in Soviet government 1917-18; a minority of its members later joined Bolsheviks; right wing took up arms against Soviet power, and twenty-two of its leaders were tried and convicted of terrorist conspiracy 1922.

Soglia, Giuseppe (1871-1926)

Joined Italian SP 1892; member of its reformist wing; parliamentary deputy; elected president of National Teachers Union 1913; adopted position of patriotic neutralism on War; forced to resign from union post and replaced by more openly chauvinist leadership 1916.

Sokolnikov, Grigorii Yakovlevich (1888-1939)

Joined Bolsheviks 1905; lived abroad 1909-17; Bolshevik leader in Moscow during 1917; member Central Committee 1917-19, 1922-30; commissar of finance 1922-6; supported United Opposition 1926; Soviet ambassador to London 1929-32; expelled 1936 and arrested; killed in prison by inmates orchestrated by Stalin’s secret police.


Weekly organ of IWW published in Chicago 1920-1.

Sombart, Werner (1863-1941)

German economist and author; initially influenced by Marxism, he later adopted Nazi ideology.

Sorel, Georges (1847-1922)

French revolutionary syndicalist; theorist of the role of myth and violence in social change; after 1909 broke with syndicalism and joined a monarchist movement, yet hailed the Bolshevik-led October revolution in Russia.

Soukup, František (1871-1940)

Joined Czech SDP 1896; co-founder and member of editorial board of daily Pràvo lidu 1897-1939; minister of justice in first Czechoslovak government 1918-19; vice-president (1920-9) and president (1929-39) of Senate; imprisoned by Nazis 1939.

Soutif, Edmond

Freemason; joined French SP 1909; joined CP 1920; active in its Paris region leadership; member of CP executive 1921; supported Centre current; expelled December 1922.

Souvarine, Boris (1895-1984)

Jewellery worker; joined French SP around 1914; internationalist during War; international affairs secretary for French Committee for the Third International; leader of left wing of SP and then of CP; delegate to Third and Fourth World Congresses; became member ECCI 1921; expelled for defence of Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1924; a leader of Left Opposition in France 1925-9; broke with Trotskyists and moved toward reformism.

Sowjet [Soviet]

Communist journal published in Berlin from May 1919; edited by Paul Levi; became voice of opposition in VKPD May 1921; later organ of KAG as Unser Weg until 1922.


Socialist Party.


Revolutionary socialist current in Germany headed by Luxemburg and Liebknecht 1914-18; with other forces, founded German CP December 1918.


Revolutionary socialist current in Germany headed by Luxemburg and Liebknecht 1914-18; functioned as public faction within USPD 1917-18; Spartacus League founded November 1918; helped found German CP December 1918.


Social Democratic Party of Germany.

Spector, Maurice (1898-1968)

Member of SDP of Canada youth wing 1914; joined Communist movement 1920; editor of The Communist 1921; editor of The Worker 1921-22 and 1923-28; 4WC delegate; editor of opposed Stalin-led campaign against Trotsky 1924-26; elected to ECCI 1928; won to Trotsky’s views and expelled as Trotsky supporter 1928; leader of pro-Trotsky Left Opposition in Canada 1928-36; a leader of U.S. Trotskyists and editor of their New International 1936-39.


See Socialist Revolutionary Party.

Stal’, Liudmila (1872-1939)

Member RSDLP 1897; Bolshevik; in exile 1907-17; active in Petrograd and Kronstadt party committees during 1917 revolution; held leading posts in Soviet government; member of Comintern women’s secretariat 1921-23; editor Kommunistka (Woman Communist) from 1924.

Stam, Jan Cornelis [Varkel] (1884-1943)

Founding member of left-wing Dutch SDP 1909; moved to Dutch East Indies, where he was a founding leader of Indonesian CP in 1920; returned to Netherlands in 1930s and became secretary of Friends of the Soviet Union; died in Nazi concentration camp.

Stampfer, Friedrich (1874-1957)

Born in Brno; leader of right wing of SP in Austria, then Germany; social chauvinist during War; opposed Germany’s signing of Versailles Treaty; editor of SPD’s Vorwärts 1916-33 and its continuation in exile 1933-40; returned to Germany 1948; taught in university and continued to write for SPD.


See Novaković, Kosta.

Steinhardt, Karl (1875-1963)

Joined Austrian SDP 1891; expelled as left-winger 1916; a founder of Austrian CP 1918; delegate to first three congresses of Comintern; member of ECCI 1921-2; arrested twice under Nazi regime in Vienna.

Stepniak, Sergey Mikhailovich [Kravchinsky] (1851-95)

Joined Russian revolutionary movement early 1870s; member of Land and Liberty; assassinated head of secret police 1878; went into exile; author of Underground Russia (1882).

Stern, Victor (1885-1958)

Teacher; member Austrian SDP 1904; joined German USPD 1919; member German CP 1920; Communist leader in Austria 1921-23; 4WC delegate; lived in Czechoslovakia 1923-35; taught in USSR 1935-45 and East Germany after 1946.

Stinnes, Hugo (1870-1924)

German industrialist; built vast economic empire after World War I, starting from coal and steel industry, moving to media, public utilities, banks, and other areas; during 1918 revolution, negotiated concessions to trade unions; later campaigned against eight-hour day and nationalisation; had ties to far-right; opposed Versailles treaty.

Stirner, Alfred

See Woog, Edgar.

Stoddard, T. Lothrop (1883-1950)

Born in Massachusetts; opponent of immigration and theorist of racism; predicted rise of Islam as threat to West; best known for The Rising Tide of Color against White World Supremacy (1920).

Stoecker, Walter (1891-1939)

Joined German SDP 1908; a leader of its youth organisation in Cologne; army conscript 1915-18; joined USPD 1917; leading member of worker/soldier council in Cologne during 1918 revolution; USPD secretary 1919; participated in USPD-KPD fusion 1920; delegate to Third and Fourth World Congresses; elected to ECCI Secretariat 1922; member of CP Zentrale 1920-1 and 1923-4; of CC 1927-33; chair of CP fraction in Reichstag 1924-32; arrested 1933; died in Buchenwald concentration camp.

Stokes, Rose Pastor (1879-1933)

Born in Poland; moved to Britain, then U.S. as child; cigar maker from age 13; later journalist; socialist and union activist from 1905; won to Russian October revolution 1918; member U.S. CP and its executive 1919; 4WC delegate; continued revolutionary activity until death.

Strasser, Josef (1870-1935)

Joined Austrian SPD while a student in Vienna; moved to Reichenberg 1905 as editor of Freigeist (later Vorwärts); supported SPD left wing; returned to Vienna 1913; joined Austrian CP early 1919; editor of Die Rote Fahne; critic of ultraleft current in CP; defended Levi in 1921; worked in Soviet Union as editor of Die Internationale 1923-8; returned to Austria 1928 and elected to Central Committee; later expelled under accusation of Trotskyism.

Striemer, Alfred (b. 1879)

German union official; economist for ADGB trade union federation; wrote for Vorwärts; published academic work under Nazi regime.

Struve, Pyotr (1870-1944)

Co-founder of Russian Social Democracy 1893; later leader of Legal Marxism; joined Cadets; opposed October Revolution; joined Whites, then emigrated.

Stuchka, Peter I. (1865-1932)

Joined Latvian social democratic movement 1895, which later aligned to RSDLP; supported Bolsheviks; elected to Latvian CC 1904; member of Petrograd Bolshevik committee 1917; Soviet commissar of justice 1917-18; head of Latvian soviet government 1918-20; fled when it collapsed; elected ECCI member 1920; Third World Congress delegate; president of Supreme Court of Soviet Union 1923-32; chairman of Comintern Control Commission 1924-32.

Stukelj [Štukelj], Ciril (Marynko) (1903-50)

Journalist; active with Communist youth in Slovenia; delegate of Yugoslav Communist youth to 4WC; secretary of Slovenian CP committee 1925; expelled from CP end of 1925; turned to reformism; leader of workers’ education in Ljubljana; translator of Marxist literature after 1945.

Sturc [Šturc], Vàclav (1858-1936)

Agricultural worker, then journalist; edited first Social Democratic newspaper in Czech language 1890; first chairman of the Czechoslovak CP; expelled 1922 and then reinstated by 4WC; 4WC consultative delegate 1922; expelled again as ‘rightist’ 1929; rejoined SP 1932.

Sturm, Hertha (1886-1945?]

Joined SPD 1911 and KPD January 1919; jailed two months for role in Bavarian workers’ republic 1919; delegate to Third World Congress; member International Women’s Secretariat in Berlin 1921-4; removed from leading posts in KPD as rightist 1924; worked with Zetkin in Moscow 1924-8; returned to Germany, again removed from party staff as rightist; worked with left socialists of ‘New Beginning’ in Germany 1934-5; arrested, tortured, and jailed for many years under Nazis; believed to have been killed in Allied air strike.

Sturm, Hertha (Edith Schumann) (1886-1945?)

Teacher; member SPD 1911; member German CP from 1919; jailed for role in Bavarian workers’ republic 1919; member International Women’s Secretariat in Berlin 1921-24; 4WC delegate; removed from leading posts as ‘rightist’ 1924; subsequently worked with Clara Zetkin in Moscow 1924-28; after return to Germany, removed from party staff as ‘rightist’; worked with left socialists of ‘New Beginning’ 1934-35; arrested, tortured, and jailed for many years under Nazis; said to have died in air raid.

Subhi, Mustafa

See Mustafa Subhi.

Subhi, Mustafa Subhi (1883-1921)

Joined Ottoman SP 1910; joined Bolsheviks during exile in Russia 1915, organised Communist group among Turkish prisoners of war; elected president of Turkish CP at its founding congress in Baku 1920; returned to take part in Turkish independence war and was murdered by police with fourteen other CC members.

Sukhomlin, Vasilii (1885-1963)

A leader of Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party and its representative to Second International; war correspondent for Avanti; opponent of October Revolution; in 1920s became editor of Russian-language section of Belgian Socialist Le Peuple and a leader of International Socialist Press Bureau.

Süleyman Nuri (1895-1966)

Turkish Communist; elected to Council for Action and Propaganda at 1920 Congress of the Peoples of the East in Baku; member military-revolutionary committee and people’s commissar of justice in soviet Armenia; delegate to Third World Congress.


See Alfred S. Edwards.

Sült, Wilhelm (1888-1921)

Chairman of shop stewards among electrical workers in Berlin and member of German CP; organised strike during March Action; arrested by police 1 April 1921 and shot while ‘trying to escape’.

Sultanzade, Ahmed [Avetis Mikailian] (1889-1938)

Born in Maraghah, Iran; moved to tsarist Russia 1907 and joined RSDLP; joined Bolsheviks by 1912, working in Caucasus and then Central Asia; organised founding of Iranian CP 1920; CC member 1920-3, 1927-32; elected to ECCI 1920 and 1928; delegate to Second, Third, Fourth, and Sixth World Congresses; worked for Soviet government 1923-7 and after 1932; expelled from Iranian CP 1932, accused of ‘leftist deviation’; arrested and shot during Stalin purges.

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)

Leader of Chinese national revolution that overthrew the Qing dynasty in 1911; founder and leader of the Kuomintang party from 1912; headed government in Guangdong 1921-22 and from 1923; accepted help of Soviet Russia from 1923.

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)

Leader of Chinese national revolution that overthrew Qing dynasty in 1911; founder and leader of Kuomintang Party from 1912; headed government in Guangdong 1921-2 and from 1923; accepted help of Soviet Russia from 1923.

Suvorov, Alexander Vasilievich (1729-1800)

Russian generalissimo; known for tactics of constant attack.

Suzuki, Bunji (1885-1946)

Labour organiser and writer; began movement to unite Japanese unions 1911; founder of Japanese Federation of Labour 1919; co-founder Japanese SP; elected to diet 1928.

Svehla [Švehla], Antonín (1873-1933)

Three times Czechoslovak prime minister 1922-29; member of Agrarian Party.

Swabeck, Arne (1890-1986)

Born in Denmark; after moving to U.S., edited SP Scandinavian weekly; leader of U.S. CP from foundation; Chicago district organiser; a leader of CP’s trade union work; 4WC delegate; expelled for support of Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1928; leader of Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party; became Maoist in 1960s; expelled for indiscipline 1967.


A branch of unionism advocating the overthrow of capitalism by purely industrial organisation and struggle; among leading syndicalist federations were the CGT and IWW; in French, ‘syndicalisme’ also signifies trade unionism in general.

Szàntó, Béla (1881-1951)

office clerk; member of Hungarian SDP 1904-8; commissar of war in Hungarian soviet government 1919; member of CP CC 1919-20, 1922; Third World Congress delegate; worked for Comintern in Vienna 1921-2; head of CP in exile 1926-9; moved to Moscow and worked for many years in Comintern apparatus; after World War II worked for Hungarian Stalinist regime on agrarian questions and as ambassador to Poland.

Taguchi Unzo (1892-1933)

Lived in US 1914-21; helped organise Socialist Circle for Japanese in US November 1919 together with Sen Katayama; member of US CP; attended Third World Congress and RILU congress as representative of Japan Communist movement; lived in Soviet Union 1921-3; moved to Japan 1923 as secretary for Soviet diplomat Adolf Joffe.

Taine, Hippolyte Adolphe (1828-93)

French historian, critic, and philosopher; wrote three-volume history of French revolution as part of Les Origines de la France contemporaine.

Tan Malaka, Ibrahim Datoek (1897-1949)

Born in Sumatra, became Marxist while student in the Netherlands; returned to Dutch East Indies and joined predecessor of CP 1919; became CP’s chairman 1921; expelled from country 1922; 4WC delegate; represented Comintern in Southeast Asia 1922-26; left Comintern in early 1930s; returned to Dutch East Indies 1942; a leader of struggle for Indonesian independence; executed by Dutch occupation army 1949.

Tasca, Angelo (1892-1960)

Joined Italian SP youth 1909; Ordine nuovo collaborator 1919-20; co-founder CP 1921; favoured united action with SP; 4WC delegate; member ECCI 1924; arrested by Fascists 1923, 1926; emigrated to France 1927; expelled from Italian CP for anti-Stalinist positions 1929; rejoined Italian SP 1935; broadcast for Vichy radio while working with resistance group; after Liberation, wrote works of political history.

Taussig, Herman (1878-1951)

Sales clerk; member of Czechoslovak SDP from 1919; founding member of CP and a leader in Slovakia; Third World Congress delegate; active in sports movement; regional chairman of EC of Slovakian section of CP; left CP 1927 and rejoined SDP; imprisoned in Buchenwald and Dachau concentration camps during World War II; rejoined CP after war; charged with Trotskyism and arrested 1951; died in prison.

Tayerle, Rudolf (1877-1942)

Right-wing Czech Social Democrat; general secretary of Social Democratic union federation 1911-39; arrested by Nazis 1941; died in concentration camp.

Tennenbaum, Edda (Else Baum) (1878-1952)

Born in Latvia; moved to Poland 1898; joined SDKPiL 1903; arrested and exiled to Siberia 1908; escaped; worked in Germany with Clara Zetkin on SPD women’s publication Gleichheit (Equality) 1909-11; subsequently active in French Socialist Party; worked for Comintern in Moscow 1919; helped edit German CP’s women’s newspaper 1920-24; staffer for Comintern’s Women’s Secretariat 1925; associate of Brandler; removed from party posts as ‘rightist’ 1928; arrested in Moscow 1937 during Stalin frame-up purges, in which her husband and son perished; after nine years in Stalin’s Gulag, returned to Warsaw, where she educated German prisoners of war; died in Warsaw.

Teodorovich, Ivan (1875-1937)

Revolutionary activist in Russia from 1895; member RSDLP 1898; Bolshevik; elected to CC 1907; 4WC delegate; people’s commissar of agriculture 1922; head of Peasant International 1928-30; expelled as ‘rightist’ 1930; victim of Stalin purges; shot.

Terracini, Umberto (1895-1983)

Member Italian SP 1916; internationalist during War; a leader of Ordine nuovo current; member of CP and its executive 1921; elected to ECCI 1921; member ECCI 1921-22; parliamentary deputy 1922-24; jailed by Fascists 1926-43; opposed Stalinist policy on World War 2 and was expelled from CP 1943; active in anti-Fascist resistance 1943-45; rejoined CP and its leadership after Liberation.


originated as left wing majority of Bulgarian SDP; split from opportunist wing 1903; won mass support during War; became Bulgarian CP May 1919.

Thalheimer, August (1884-1948)

Writer; joined SPD 1904; director of SPD paper in Göppingen 1909; member of Spartacus group during War; conscripted into army 1916-18; played prominent role in 1918 revolution in Stuttgart; member of CC of German CP 1919-24; defended ‘theory of the offensive’ at Third World Congress 1921, but subsequently opposed ultraleft Fischer-Maslow wing in German CP; held responsible, with Brandler, for workers’ defeat in 1923; taught philosophy in Moscow 1924-8; opposed Stalin’s ultraleft course 1928; expelled as ‘rightist’ 1929; co-founder with Brandler of CP (Opposition); emigrated 1933; Allied powers refused his re-entry into Germany after 1945; died in Cuba.

Thälmann, Ernst (1886-1944)

German docker and seaman; joined SPD 1903 and USPD in 1917; army conscript 1915-18; chairman of USPD in Hamburg 1919; participated in USPD-KPD fusion; elected to CC 1920; Third World Congress delegate; member of Reichstag 1924-33 and KPD candidate for president 1925 and 1932; became chairman of KPD 1925; arrested by Nazis 1933; executed in Buchenwald concentration camp.

Thaon di Revel, Paolo (1859-1948)

Italian aristocrat; admiral; commanded navy 1917-19; minister of the navy under Mussolini 1922-25.

The Call

newspaper published in London by members of British Socialist Party 1916-20; merged with Communist August 1920.

The Communist

Weekly newspaper of British CP founded July 1920 and published until 1923; 15,000 circulation in 1921.

Thiers, Adolphe (1797-1877)

French journalist, historian, and politician; president of Third Republic 1871-3; presided over suppression of Paris Commune.

Third Congress

The Third Congress of the Comintern was held in Moscow, June to July 1921. The Third Congress of the Communist Youth International took place there in December 1922.

Thomas, Albert (1878-1932)

Joined French SP 1902; became leader of its right wing; deputy in parliament from 1910; supported French war effort and became minister for munitions 1916-17; first director of International Labour Organisation 1919-32.

Thomas, James Henry (1874-1949)

British railway union president 1905-6 and organising secretary from 1906; Labour Party member of parliament 1910; social chauvinist during War; elected treasurer of Second International 1920; head of Amsterdam International 1920-4; withdrew rail union’s support for miners’ strike, leading to its defeat 1921; cabinet minister 1924 and 1929-36; broke with Labour Party 1931.

Three Executives

Refers to conference of executive committee representatives from the Second, Two-and-a-Half, and Communist Internationals held in Berlin 2-5 April 1922.

Three Internationals

See Conference of the Three Internationals.

Thyssen, August (1842-1926)

German industrialist; established iron, steel, and coal family empire; succeeded by son Fritz (1873-1951), who helped finance Nazis from 1923.

Togliatti, Palmiro (1893-1964)

Member Italian SP 1914; co-founder of l’Ordine nuovo 1919; member CP 1921 and its CC 1922; central leader of CP from 1926; supported Stalin leadership in Comintern; worked for Comintern in exile from late 1920s to 1944; returned to lead postwar Italian CP 1944.

Tolstoy, Leo (1828-1910)

Russian author; developed religious doctrine based on Christian anarchism and pacifism.

Tommasi, Joseph (1886-1926)

Cabinet maker, mechanic; member of French SP 1904; union activist; supporter of CGT left wing during War; member of CGT administrative committee 1919; supported affiliation to Comintern; member of CP executive committee 1921-22; supporter of Left current in CP; forced into exile by French police 1924; became supporter of Left Opposition led by Trotsky; lived in Moscow 1924-26.

Tommasi, Joseph (1886-1926)

Cabinet-maker, mechanic; joined French SP 1904; union activist; supporter of CGT left wing during War; member of CGT administrative committee 1919; supported SP affiliation to Comintern; member of CP executive committee 1921-2; Third World Congress delegate; supporter of Left current in CP; forced into exile by French police 1924; became supporter of Left Opposition led by Trotsky; lived in Moscow 1924-6.

Tonetti, Giovanni (1888-1970)

Radicalised during war; member Italian SP 1919; stayed in SP when CP formed 1921; 4WC delegate; subsequently leader of pro-Comintern tendency in SP; joined CP 1924; withdrew from politics after 1925; later active with SP in anti-Fascist resistance and postwar politics; rejoined CP 1959.

Torp, Oscar (1893-1958)

Electrician; union activist from 1908; chair of Norwegian Labour Party in Sarpsborg 1918 and nationally 1923-45; 4WC delegate representing Labour Party majority 1922; minister of defence 1935-36; twice mayor of Oslo; minister in 1942-45 exile government; prime minister 1951-55.

Torralba Beci, Eduardo (1881-1929)

Journalist; leader of Spanish Socialist Youth from 1904; editor of El Socialista; jailed 1906 for ‘mocking religion’; elected to UGT executive committee 1914, 1916; favoured Entente side in War; founding leader of Communist Workers Party [PCO] April 1921 and its delegate to Third World Congress.

Tours Congress

Congress of French SP held 25-30 December 1920; voted by a 75 per cent majority to accept the Twenty-One Conditions and affiliate to the Comintern, giving birth to the CP of France; a minority (‘Dissidents’) split away, preserving the name SP.

Tranmael, Martin (1879-1967)

Construction worker; leader of left wing of Norwegian Labour Party; internationalist during War; supported affiliation to Comintern; led Labour Party out of Comintern 1923; in Swedish exile during 1940-45 Nazi occupation; supported Norway’s joining NATO 1949.

Tranquilli, Romolo (1904-32)

Press operator; Italian CP delegate to Third World Congress 1921; functionary of Communist youth organisation; worked in CP underground; arrested 1928; died in prison of tuberculosis.

Treint, Albert (1889-1971)

Teacher; member French SP 1912; member Committee for the Third International; member CC of French CP from 1920; supported Left current; expelled as supporter of Left Opposition led by Trotsky 1928; led a pro-Trotsky current 1929-34; rejoined SP 1934.

Tresso, Pietro (Blasco) (1893-1943)

Joined Italian SP youth 1907; joined CP 1921; supporter of Bordiga current; 4WC delegate; member CC 1927; after frequent arrests, emigrated to Switzerland and France; took part in founding congress of Fourth International led by Trotsky 1938; active in French resistance under Nazi occupation; arrested, liberated by resistance, and then executed on orders of Stalinist agent.

Treves, Claudio (1869-1933)

Founding member of Italian SP 1892; colleague of Turati; editor of Avanti 1910-12; parliamentary deputy 1906-26; in 1917 became supporter of Italy’s national defence during War; helped found reformist Unitary Socialist Party [PSU] in split from SP 1922.

Trilisser, Meier or Mikhail (Moskvin) (1883-1940)

Joined RSDLP 1901; Bolshevik; jailed under tsarism; a leader of Siberian CP 1918; assigned to work in Far East 1918-20; leader of work abroad of Soviet security police (Cheka) 1921-35; 4WC delegate; assigned various tasks in Comintern from 1935; arrested during Stalin purges 1938; shot.

Troelstra, Pieter (1860-1930)

Leader of Dutch SP 1894-1924; made unsuccessful bid for power during mass workers’ upsurge November 1918.

Trotsky, Leon (1879-1940)

Born in Ukraine; joined socialist movement 1897; supported Mensheviks at RSDLP congress 1903; internationalist and supporter of Zimmerwald movement during War; joined Bolsheviks and elected to CC 1917; people’s commissar of foreign affairs 1917-18 and of war 1918-25; a leader of Comintern; gave major report at Third World Congress; leader of Left Opposition in Russian CP and Comintern from 1923; expelled 1927; exiled abroad 1929; called for new International 1933; main target of 1936-8 Stalin frame-up trials; founding leader of Fourth International 1938; murdered by agent of Stalin.

Tskhakaia, Mikhail Grigorievich (1865-1950)

native of Georgia; joined RSDLP 1898; member of Bolshevik faction from 1903; lived in Switzerland 1907-17; headed Bolshevik committee in Tiflis 1917-20; elected to ECCI 1920; after 1921 chairman of central executive committee of soviet republic of Georgia and member of Georgian CP CC; delegate to Second through Seventh World Congresses.


Trade Union Educational League, U.S. affiliate of RILU.

Tugan-Baranovsky, Mikhail (1865-1919)

Ukrainian economist; contributor to Marxist theory of crises; joined liberal bourgeois Cadet party during 1905-7 revolution; active in cooperative movement; opponent of Russian October revolution; minister of Ukrainian People’s Republic 1917-18.

Turati, Filippo (1857-1932)

Founding member Italian SP 1892; leader of its reformist right wing; founder and editor of Critica Sociale 1891-1926; parliamentary deputy 1896-1926; opposed Italy’s entry into War but supported national defence as War went on; opponent of October Revolution and Comintern; expelled from SP 1922, forming reformist PSU; emigrated to France 1926.

Twenty-One Conditions

Resolution adopted by the Second Comintern Congress on 6 August 1920, defining conditions for admission of new parties to the International and duties for its affiliates.

Two-and-a-Half International

Term used by Communists for International Working Union of Socialist Parties, or Vienna Union, an alliance of centrist social-democratic parties formed February 1921; merged with right wing Berne International to become Labour and Socialist International 1923.

Tywerousky, Oscar [Baldwin] [b. 1893)

Russian immigrant to US and a leader of Russian Federation in SP and then CP; elected to central executive committee at CP founding congress 1919, representing Russian federation; Third World Congress delegate representing US and elected to ECCI; executed in Moscow during Stalin purges.

UHK (Union der Hand- und Kopfarbeiter)

See Federation of Manual and Intellectual Workers.

Ulbricht, Walter (1893-1973)

Cabinet maker; joined SPD 1912; in Spartacus group during war; CP leader in Thuringia district; supported Brandler leadership, then ‘conciliator’ current led by Meyer; supported Stalin’s ultraleft course 1928; emigrated after Nazi takeover; in USSR 1938-45; led anti-Nazi ‘Free Germany Committee’ 1941-45; general secretary of CP and SED from 1945; East German head of state from 1960; retired 1971.

Unfried, Emil (1892-1949)

Member SPD 1912; member of Spartacus group during War; member of German CP 1919; vice-chair of CP in Stuttgart 1919-21; secretary for agrarian work for CP leadership 1921-24; 4WC delegate; removed from leading posts as ‘rightist’ 1924; headed film division of Münzenberg’s Communist-led political-cultural enterprise 1924-33; withdrew from politics and continued to produce films under Nazi rule; rejoined CP after fall of Nazism; arrested by Soviet authorities in East Germany 1945; died in Sachsenhausen concentration camp.

Ungern von Sternberg, Roman (1886-1921)

Russian-German from Baltics; fought in War; White Army commander during civil war; dictator of Mongolia March to August 1921; taken prisoner by Red Army and executed.

Union of Islamic Revolutionary Societies

[İslâm İhtilal Cemiyetleri İttihadı] international organisation founded in 1920 by Enver Pasha with branches in several countries; called for liberating Muslims from imperialist oppression; fell apart by late 1921.

Union of Oppositional Trade Unions

[Fagoppositionens Sammenslutning, Denmark] syndicalist organisation founded 1910; 4,000 members in 1919; allied to CP early 1921 in Communist Federation of Denmark, which lasted until January 1922.

Unione Syndicale Italiana

[USI] Italian anarcho-syndicalist union federation; founded 1912 out of split in CGL; sent representatives to RILU congress 1921, but did not affiliate; contained both anarchist and syndicalist wings; 800,000 members summer 1920, declining to 150,000 members in 1921.


The Conservative and Unionist party of Great Britain.

Unitary Communist Faction

[Unitarians] Centrist grouping led by Serrati within Italian SP prior to 1921 Livorno Congress.

Urbahns, Hugo (1890-1946)

Teacher; socialist from 1912; member Spartacus group 1918; a leader of CP in Hamburg; 4WC delegate; helped organise Hamburg uprising 1923; jailed 1924-25; leader, with Fischer and Maslow, of CP ‘left’ current; expelled 1926; supported Left Opposition led by Trotsky until 1930-31; campaigned for united front against Hitler; emigrated to Sweden after Nazi takeover; Stalinists secured a Swedish deportation order against him, but no other country would take him; died in Sweden.

Urquhart, John Leslie (1874-1933)

British capitalist with huge investments in petroleum and mining in Russia before 1917 October revolution; helped organise intervention against Soviet government; negotiated unsuccessfully to obtain concession to operate mines in Soviet Russia 1922.


Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany; formed 1917 by left critics of SPD majority leadership; majority fused with CP December 1920; minority retained name until merger with SPD 1922.


Union of Technicians in Industry, Commerce, and Agriculture, a French trade union of managers and highly skilled workers.

Vaillant-Couturier, Paul (1892-1937)

Lawyer; joined French SP as soldier 1916; jailed for anti-war articles 1918; SP parliamentary deputy 1919; a leader of CP Left current 1921-2; Third World Congress delegate; member of CP executive 1920-4 and CC 1925-37; lead editor of L’Humanité 1926-9 and 1935-7; worked in Comintern headquarters in Moscow 1931-2.

Vajtauer, Emanuel (b. 1892)

Psychologist; anarchist writer; member Czechoslovak CP 1921; supported leftist opposition 1921-22; an editor of CP’s Rudé Pràvo 1921-23; 4WC delegate; expelled April 1929; later edited Social Democratic paper; Nazi collaborator during World War 2; after war went into exile.

Vambery, Arminius (1832-1913)

Hungarian traveller and writer; expert on near-Eastern languages and culture.

Van Overstraeten, Edouard

See Overstraeten, Edouard van.

Vandervelde, Émile (1866-1938)

Leader of Belgian Workers Party; chairman of Brussels office of Second International 1900-14; member of Belgian council of ministers 1916-21, 1925-7, 1936-7; chairman of Belgian Workers Party 1933-8; president of Socialist International 1929-36.

Vanĕk, Miloš (1897-1967)

Joined Czech SDP during War and became member of CP 1921; delegate to Second World Congress; editor Rudé pràvo 1921; assigned by CP to Comintern 1921; rejoined SDP 1926; went to West Germany after CP takeover of Czechoslovakia 1948; worked for Radio Free Europe from 1951.

Varga, Eugen [Jenő] (1879-1964)

Economist; joined Hungarian Social Democracy 1906, CP 1919; people’s commissar for finance in Hungarian soviet government 1919; emigrated to Soviet Russia after its fall; worked for ECCI; delegate to Third and subsequent world congresses; prominent Soviet economist until criticised by Stalin 1947; later partially rehabilitated; died in USSR.


See Stam, Jan Cornelis.

Vaughan, Joseph J. [b. 1878)

Electrical worker; Labour Party elected councilor in London 1914-24; member of London Labour Party Executive; founding member CP 1920; Third World Congress delegate; elected Communist mayor of Bethnal Green in London 1919, 1920, 1921; president of Bethnal Green Trades Council.

Vella, Arturo (1886-1943)

Socialist from 1902; assistant secretary of Italian SP 1912; supporter of its Maximalist left wing; jailed for agitation within army 1918-19; stayed in SP after formation of CP 1921; opposed unity with CP 1922-23; withdrew from political activity in late 1920s.

Vercik, Julius (1894-1959)

Metalworker; member of Czechoslovak CP; member of CC 1921-25; alternate member ECCI 1924-30; leader of left wing in Czechoslovak Red union federation late 1920s; expelled for ‘opportunism’ and ‘nationalism’ 1930.

Verdier, Guillaume

French revolutionary syndicalist; CGT leader in Decazeville (Aveyron) 1919-21; supported affiliation to Comintern; signed pact of anarchist syndicalists 1921; supported ‘pure syndicalist’ wing in CGTU; left CP, probably in 1922.

Verfeuil, Raoul (1887-1927)

Postal worker, journalist; member French SP; centrist during War; joined French CP after Tours congress 1920; leader of right wing hostile to Comintern discipline; expelled from CP on instructions of ECCI October 1922; rejoined SP 1924.

Vergeat, Marcel (1891-1920)

Leader of French syndicalist youth movement from before War; supported Zimmerwald; co-secretary of Committee for the Third International 1919; went to Moscow July 1920 for meeting of revolutionary unionists; died at sea on return journey.

Versailles, Treaty of

Peace treaty signed 28 June 1919 between Allied powers and Germany; was followed by the treaties of Saint-Germain (with Austria), Neuilly (with Bulgaria), Trianon (with Hungary), and Sèvres (with Ottoman Turkey).

Vienna International

See Two-and-a-Half International.

Viscount de Eza [Luis Marichalar y Monreal] (1872-1945)

Spanish Conservative politician; director general of agriculture 1907; mayor of Madrid 1913-14; minister of public works 1917; minister of war 1921.


See Communist Party, Germany.

Vliegen, Willem (1862-1947)

Typographer, editor; joined Dutch Social Democratic movement 1883; a leader of right wing in Dutch Social Democratic Workers’ Party through 1930s.

Vodovosov, M H.

Soviet trade representative in Italy and aide to Krasin, following Soviet-Italy treaty of 1920.

Voitinsky, Grigory (1893-1953)

Born in Russia; lived in North America 1913-18; joined Bolsheviks 1918; worked in Comintern apparatus from 1920; assigned to work in Far East; visited China several times in 1920s; assigned to research work in 1930s.

Vorovsky, Vatslav Vatslavovich (1871-1923)

Joined Russian socialist movement 1894; Bolshevik from 1903; worked in Bolshevik underground in St. Petersburg 1905-7, and Odessa 1907-12; Soviet diplomatic representative to Scandinavia 1917-19; secretary of First World Congress 1919; Soviet representative in Italy 1921-3; assassinated in Lausanne by White émigré.

Vorwärts [Forward, Reichenberg]

Daily newspaper published by social democrats in Reichenberg [Liberec] beginning 1911; in 1921 became organ of Czechoslovak Communist Party (German section); remained organ of Czechoslovak CP until 1934.

Votava, Karel (b. 1884)

Journalist; member of Czech Social Democracy; joined CP 1921; secretary of its Brno city organisation 1921-23; identified with its ‘right’ wing; expelled 1925; rejoined SP 1926; edited its city newspaper in Ostrava 1929-38.

Vujović, Voja (1895-1936)

Joined Serbian SP 1912; leader of French SP youth during war; co-founder of Communist Youth International 1919; secretary of Youth International’s Executive 1921-26; 4WC delegate; criticised Stalin for opportunist policy in China; expelled from Russian CP and deported as supporter of Left Opposition 1927-28; readmitted to CP 1930; arrested during Stalin purges 1935; disappeared in camps.

Walcher, Jakob (1887-1970)

Joined SPD 1906; opposed SPD pro-war policy 1914 and joined Spartacus group in Stuttgart; arrested 1915 and conscripted into army; CP founding member 1918; member Zentrale 1919-24; secretary to CC, responsible for trade union work; worked for RILU 1924-6; expelled from CP 1928 as rightist; moved to Paris after 1933; a leader of German Socialist Workers Party [SAP]; moved to East Germany 1946 and joined CP; demoted from all positions 1949; expelled 1951; readmitted 1956.

Walecki, Henryk (1877-1937)

University graduate in mathematics and physics; member Polish SP from 1899; internationalist during War; took part in Zimmerwald Conference 1915; founding member Polish CP 1919; delegate to Third through Fifth World Congresses; member ECCI 1921-4; attacked as ‘opportunist’ 1924; moved to USSR 1925; assistant secretary to Comintern Balkan Secretariat 1928-35; editor-in-chief of Communist International 1935-7; arrested and executed during Stalin purges.

Wallenius, Allan (1890-1942)

Took part in Finnish revolution 1918; then emigrated to Sweden and Soviet Russia; Comintern librarian; carried out Comintern assignments in U.S., Scandinavia; arrested during Stalin purges; died in concentration camp.


See Warszawski, Adolf.

Warszawski, Adolf [Warski, Michalak] (1868-1937)

Pioneer of early Polish socialist movement; co-founder of SDKPiL; a leader of RSDLP after 1905 revolution; attended Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences during War; a founding leader of Polish CP 1918; delegate to Third through Sixth World Congresses; ousted from Polish CP leadership for opposition to Stalin course 1929; lived in USSR from 1929; arrested and executed during Stalin purges.

Washington Conference

held by representatives of nine governments 12 November 1921-6 February 1922 to discuss naval disarmament and conflicting great-power interests in the Pacific; Soviet Russia was excluded.

WC, 2WC, 3WC, 4WC

World Congress and Second, Third, Fourth World Congress of the Communist International.

Webb, Beatrice (1858-1943)

British writer and social reformer; wrote Cooperative Movement of Great Britain 1891; with husband Sidney, central figure in Fabian Society, which advocated socialism through incremental change; co-author of Soviet Communism, a defence of the Stalinist order 1935.

Webb, Harry (b. 1889)

Metalworker; member Socialist Labour Party 1906-20; represented Ashton Communist Group in formation of British CP; opposed running in elections and affiliation to Labour Party 1921; jailed for two months 1921; 4WC delegate; member CC 1929-32.

Webb, Sidney (1859-1947)

A leader of liberal-reformist English Fabian Society; prominent members of Labour Party after 1914; co-author of The History of Trade Unionism and Industrial Democracy.

Wels, Otto (1873-1939)

Upholsterer and union activist; joined SPD 1891; Reichstag deputy 1912; joined party executive 1913; leader of its right wing; party chairman 1919; led SPD deputies in voting against emergency powers for Hitler 1933; was deprived of citizenship and emigrated.

Welti, Franz (1879-1934)

Swiss lawyer; socialist from 1908; internationalist during War; co-founder of Swiss CP 1919; its chair 1921-27; 4WC delegate; criticised Comintern’s ultraleft course 1928-29; removed from CP leadership 1930; remained in CP until death.

Werth, Gérard

Metalworker; supporter of Renoult current in French CP; 4WC delegate; member CC 1922-23; supporter of ‘Bolshevisation’; expelled 1925.

Westarp, Kuno von (1864-1945)

Leader of German Conservative Party fraction in Reichstag to 1918; in 1920 joined right-wing German National People’s Party [DNVP].

Western Federation of Miners

Militant union of hard rock miners and smelter workers in western US and Canada; founded 1893; joined in creation of IWW 1905 but broke with it and joined AFL 1911; became International Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelter Workers 1916; merged with United Steelworkers of America 1967.

White Guards

Counterrevolutionary armies in 1918-20 Russian civil war.

White Terror

The campaign of violence against civilians, especially workers and Jews, conducted by counter-revolutionary forces in the Russian Civil war, and, by extension, similar right-wing violence in other countries.


Refers to armies that fought against Soviet government in 1917-21 Russian Civil War, or, more generally, to counterrevolutionary forces.


See Hohenzollern.

Wilhelm II (1859-1941)

Emperor of Germany 1888-1918; fled to Netherlands following November 1918 revolution.

Williams, Robert (1881-1936)

Secretary of National Transport Workers Federation 1912-22; member of Labour Party Executive; part of British union delegation to Moscow 1920 to discuss founding new trade union International; joined CP 1920; expelled 1921, accused of having betrayed miners strike after Black Friday.

Wilson, Woodrow (1856-1924)

Democratic Party president of US 1913-21; led US into War 1917; issued Fourteen Points 1918, which promised liberal non-punitive peace and a League of Nations.

Wirth, Joseph (1879-1956)

German politician; a leader of Catholic Centre Party; German minister of finance 1920-1; chancellor in government that encompassed SPD May 1921 to November 1922; in exile as an opponent of Nazi rule 1933-49; subsequently favoured reunited, neutral Germany.

Wissell, Rudolf (1869-1962)

Joined German Social Democracy 1888; member of trade union central secretariat from 1908; became deputy chairman of ADGB union federation 1918; member of Council of People’s Representatives 1918-19; German economics minister 1919; head of ADGB’s Social Affairs Department 1919-24; jailed for two months under Nazis; helped rebuild Berlin SPD after 1945.

Wittelsbach: ruling dynasty of Bavaria until 1918.

Wolf, Felix (1893-1936)

Born to German family in present-day Estonia; moved to Germany 1900; to Russia 1914; joined Bolsheviks 1917; KPD member and ECCI collaborator from 1919; active in Hamburg during March Action; lived in Russia 1924-5 and from 1927; close to anti-Stalinist opposition currents; arrested several times during Stalin purges; executed.

Wolffheim, Fritz (1888-1942)

Joined SPD 1909; worked with ultraleft in Hamburg SPD during War; joined CP 1918; leader of National Bolshevism tendency together with Lauffenberg; expelled 1920; joined KAPD but then expelled August 1920; attempted to continue nationalist-socialist activity but evolved to right; in close contact with left wing of Nazi Party led by Strasser; arrested 1934 during Nazi purge of Strasser current; died in concentration camp.

Woog, Edgar (Stirner) (1898-1973)

Born in Switzerland; joined Swiss Socialist youth 1916; co-founder Mexican CP 1920; active in early Comintern as expert on Latin American affairs; member German CP 1922-24; represented Mexican CP at 4WC 1922; member ECCI 1922-24; active in Comintern through 1930s; active in Swiss pro-Soviet socialist party in 1940s and 1950s.

Workers Party of America

Legal political party founded December 1921 by U.S. CP, which was then functioning underground.

Wrangel, Piotr (1878-1928)

Russian General; commander of White forces in southern Russia 1919-20; emigrated to Yugoslavia 1920; subsequently led White exile army.

Wrangel, Pyotr Nikolaevich (1878-1928)

Russian general; commander of White forces in southern Russia 1919-20; emigrated to Yugoslavia 1920; subsequently led White exile army.

Wu Peifu (1874-1939)

Chinese warlord based in Beijing; was the dominant figure in north China 1922.

Yahya, Imam Muhamed Hamid ed-Din (1867-1948)

Imam of Yemen 1904-48.

Yelizarova-Ulyanova, Anna Ilyinichna (1864-1935)

Sister of V.I. Lenin; member RSDLP 1898; leading party activist within Russia before 1917; contributor to Rabotnitsa (Woman Worker): active in education and mother/child care after 1917; wrote works on party history.


Term of abuse for pro-capitalist and pro-employer forces in workers’ movement.

Yoshihara, Taro (b. 1890)

[Gentaro Yoshiwara] Japanese immigrant in US; member of US IWW and Japanese Socialist Group; moved to Japan 1919 with Japanese Communist Group; delegate to Third World Congress and RILU congress; later returned to Japan and was imprisoned.

Young Turks

Reference to nationalist officers’ movement that led the Turkish constitutional revolution of 1908.

Younghusband, George (1859-1944)

British general; fought in many wars against colonial peoples in Asia and Africa.

Yuan Shikai (1859-1916)

Chinese army leader; first president of Republic of China 1912-16; with Japanese support he attempted to proclaim himself emperor.

Yudenich, Nikolai (1862-1933)

Russian general; leader of White forces in northwest during Russian civil war; emigrated 1920.

Zaglul Pasha, Saad (1857-1927)

Leader of Egyptian nationalist movement and Wafd Party; Britain’s deportation of him in March 1919 helped spark revolutionary upsurge; prime minister of Egypt 1924.

Zalewski, Alexandre [b. 1888)

Pseudonym for Alexandre E. Abramovich; joined Bolsheviks in Russia 1908; lived in Switzerland 1911-17, returning to Russia with Lenin; sent to France November 1919 as member of Comintern Secretariat for Western Europe; arrested in France 1921 and sent back to Russia; worked for Comintern in Latvia and then Vienna; worked for Comintern Department of Organisation 1925-31; taught at Institute of Marxism-Leninism in Tomsk in 1934-49; retired in 1961.

Stonemason; member of Czech SP 1902 and of its left wing 1919; member of Czechoslovak CP CC 1921; CC secretary 1922-1929; general secretary of Czechoslovak Red unions 1929-39; held in Nazi concentration camp 1939-45; prime minister of Czechoslovakia 1948-53 and president 1953-57.

Zàpotocký Antonín (1884-1957)

Stonemason; Member of Czech SP 1902 and of its left wing 1919; an organiser of December 1920 political strikes and chairman of revolutionary committee in Kladno; arrested along with 3,000 other participants in the strike and imprisoned for nine months; member of Czechoslovak CP CC 1921; CC secretary 1922-9; general secretary of Czechoslovak red unions 1929-39; held in Nazi concentration camp 1939-45; prime minister of Czechoslovakia 1948-53 and president 1953-7.


Central Bureau of German Communist Party; subcommittee of party Central Committee.

Zetkin, Clara (1857-1933)

Joined German socialist movement 1878; driven into exile by Bismarck’s Anti-Socialist Laws 1882-90; co-founder of Second International 1889; a leader of its Marxist wing; campaigner for women’s emancipation; close associate of Rosa Luxemburg in SPD left wing; organised internationalist conference of socialist women 1915; joined German CP 1919; opposed ultraleftism in CP during March Action 1921 and thereafter; member ECCI from 1922; attended Second through Sixth World Congresses; headed Communist Women’s Movement 1921-6; opposed ‘Bolshevisation’ campaign 1924-5 and Stalin’s ultraleft turn from 1928; remained prominent figure in German CP and Comintern, without recanting, until her death in Moscow.

Zhang Tailei (1898-1927)

Won to communism as Chinese student activist 1920; went to Irkutsk 1921 to establish Chinese CP contact with Far Eastern Secretariat; Third World Congress delegate; elected secretary-general of Chinese Communist youth February 1925; elected to party CC 1927; helped lead December 1927 Canton insurrection; executed after it was crushed.

Zhang Zuolin (c.1875-1928)

Chinese warlord based in Manchuria and aligned with Japan.

Zhordania, Noé Nikolaevich (1868-1953)

Joined Georgian Social Democratic movement 1890s; Menshevik by 1905; chairman of Tiflis soviet 1917; opponent of October Revolution; president of Georgian Menshevik government 1918-21; exiled in France from 1921.

Zibordi, Giovanni (1870-1943)

Joined Italian socialist movement 1892; journalist living in Reggio Emilia and member of reformist wing of SP; parliamentary deputy 1914-21; joined reformist Unitary Socialist Party [PSU] 1922.

Zietz, Louise (1865-1922)

Joined German SDP in 1892; member of Executive of Social Democratic Women’s Movement after its founding in 1908; women’s secretary on SPD national executive 1908-17; expelled from SPD Executive 1917 and joined USPD; member of USPD Executive; opposed merger with KPD and stayed with rump USPD 1920.


Reference to movement formed at 1915 conference in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, attended by left-wing and centrist socialist parties and currents, following collapse of Second International in 1914; a second conference was held in Kienthal, Switzerland, in 1916.

Zimmerwald Conference

First gathering of antiwar socialist currents during World War 1, held in Zimmerwald, Switzerland, September 1915; its left wing, the Zimmerwald Left, was a precursor of the Comintern.

Zimmerwald Left

Formed September 1915 by Lenin and left-wing forces at socialist conference in Zimmerwald, Switzerland; a forerunner of Third International.

Zinoviev, Gregory (1883-1936)

Joined RSDLP 1901; Bolshevik; elected to CC 1907; internationalist and collaborator of Lenin during War; chair of Petrograd soviet 1917-26; president of Comintern 1919-26; collaborated with Stalin to isolate Trotsky from central leadership 1923-24; broke with Stalin 1925; with Trotsky, led United Opposition to bureaucratic degeneration 1926-27; expelled 1927; recanted and was readmitted 1928; re-expelled 1932 and 1934; convicted at first Moscow frame-up trial and shot.

Zubatov, Sergei Vasilevich (1864-1917)

official in tsarist secret police; formed legal pro-government workers’ organisations 1901-3; these organisations escaped from police control and were banned 1903; committed suicide during February 1917 revolution.

Zulawski, Zygmunt (1880-1949)

Joined Polish SDP of Galicia 1904; member of its executive committee 1911-18; after Polish independence in 1919 was a member of the Socialist Party [PPS] and its national leadership 1919-39; president of Polish trade union federation 1919-22; worked in PPS underground during World War II; leader of Polish social democracy until his death.